Ryugyong Hotel  柳京飯店 – 世界上最高的未完工建築

Ryugyong Hotel | 柳京飯店



Architectural style:Neo-futurism
Location:Pyongyang, North Korea
Building Start:1987
Estimated completion:Unknown
Height;Roof 330.02 metres (1,082.7 ft)
Technical details
Floor count:105
Floor area:360,000 m2 (3,900,000 sq ft)
Design and construction:
Architect:Baikdoosan Architects & Engineers
Developer:Orascom Group
建築風格: 新未來主義
地點: 朝鮮平壤
建設開始: 1987
平頂儀式: 1992年
高度屋頂33.0 米 (1, 1,082.7 英尺)
建築面積:360, 000 平方米 (3, 900, 000 平方英尺)
開發者:orascom 集團
The Ryugyong Hotel (Chosŏn’gŭl: 류경려관; sometimes spelled as Ryu-Gyong Hotel), or Yu-Kyung Hotel, is an unfinished 105-story, 330-metre-tall (1,080 ft) pyramid-shaped skyscraper in Pyongyang, North Korea. Its name (“capital of willows”) is also one of the historical names for Pyongyang. The building is also known as the 105 Building, a reference to its number of floors. The building has been planned as a mixed-use development, which would include a hotel. The building is currently listed by Guinness World Records as being the tallest unoccupied building in the world.
Construction began in 1987 but was halted in 1992 as North Korea entered a period of economic crisis after the fall of the Soviet Union. After 1992 the building stood topped out, but without any windows or interior fittings. In 2008 construction resumed, and the exterior was completed in 2011. It was planned to open the hotel in 2012, the centenary of Kim Il-sung’s birth. A partial opening was announced for 2013, but this was cancelled. As of 2018, the building remains unopened and has been called the tallest unfinished building in the world.
琉球酒店 (choschinnöglel:choschin:chyochn:s. 有時拼寫為 ryu-gyong hotel), 或 yu-kyung hotel, 是朝鮮平壤一個未完成的105層、330米高 (1, 080 英尺) 金字塔形摩天大樓。它的名字 (“柳樹之都”) 也是平壤的歷史名字之一。該建築也被稱為 1 0 5 樓, 指的是樓盤的數量。該建築已被規劃為綜合開發專案, 其中將包括一家酒店。該建築目前被吉尼斯世界紀錄列為世界上最高的無人居住建築。
1987年開始施工, 但1992年停止建設, 因為朝鮮在蘇聯解體後進入了經濟危機時期。1992年後, 這座建築站得很高, 但沒有任何窗戶或內部配件。2008年恢復施工, 外部于2011年完工。計畫于 2 0 1 2年金日成誕辰一百周年, 開店。宣佈2013年部分開業, 但被取消。截至 2 0 1 8年, 該建築仍未開放, 被稱為世界上最高的未完工建築。



The Ryugyong Hotel is 330 metres (1,080 ft) tall, making it the most prominent feature of Pyongyang’s skyline and by far the tallest structure in North Korea. Construction of the Ryugyong Hotel was intended to be completed in time for the 13th World Festival of Youth and Students in June 1989; had this been achieved, it would have held the title of world’s tallest hotel. The unfinished building was not surpassed in height by any new hotel until the 2009 completion of the spire atop the Rose Tower in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The Ryugyong Hotel is the world’s 63rd tallest building (tied with the China World Trade Center Tower III, Zhuhai St. Regis Hotel & Office Tower, and Yuexiu Fortune Center l in height) and has the tenth most floors. According to Guinness World Records, it is the tallest unoccupied building in the world.

The building consists of three wings, each measuring 100 metres (330 ft) long, 18 metres (59 ft) wide, and sloped at a 75‑degree angle,which converge at a common point to form a pinnacle. The building is topped by a truncated cone 40 metres (130 ft) wide, consisting of eight floors that are intended to rotate, topped by a further six static floors. The structure was originally intended to house five revolving restaurants, and either 3,000 or 7,665 guest rooms, according to different sources. According to Orascom’s Khaled Bichara in 2009, the Ryugyong will not be just a hotel, but rather a mixed-use development, including “revolving restaurant” facilities along with a “mixture of hotel accommodation, apartments and business facilities”.

琉球酒店高330米 (1, 080 英尺), 是平壤天際線上最突出的特色, 也是朝鮮迄今為止最高的建築。琉球酒店的建造計畫于1989年6月第13屆世界青年和學生節之前及時完工;如果實現了這一點, 它將擁有世界最高酒店的稱號。直到2009年阿拉伯聯合大公國迪拜玫瑰塔頂上的尖頂完工後, 未完工的建築在高度上都沒有被任何新酒店超越。琉球大酒店是世界上第6 3 座最高的建築 (與中國世貿大廈三座、珠海瑞吉酒店及寫字樓、越秀財富中心等高) 並列, 樓高為第十層。根據吉尼斯世界紀錄, 它是世界上最高的無人居住的建築。
該建築由三個機翼組成, 每個機翼長100米 (330 英尺), 寬18米 (59 英尺), 傾斜在75度角, 在一個共同的點上聚集在一起, 形成一個頂峰。建築的頂部是一個40米 (130 英尺) 寬的截斷錐, 由8個樓層組成, 打算旋轉, 頂部還有6個靜態樓層。根據不同的消息來源, 該建築最初打算容納5家旋轉餐廳, 以及 3, 000 間或 7 665 間客房。根據 orascom 的 khaled bichara 在 2009年, ryugyong 將不僅僅是一個酒店, 而是一個綜合開發專案, 包括 “旋轉餐廳” 設施, 以及 “酒店住宿、公寓和商業設施的混合”。
Construction begins
The plan for a large hotel was reportedly a Cold War response to the completion of the world’s tallest hotel, the Westin Stamford Hotel in Singapore, in 1986 by the South Korean company SsangYong Group. North Korean leadership envisioned the project as a channel for Western investors to step into the marketplace. A firm, the Ryugyong Hotel Investment and Management, was established to attract a hoped-for $230 million in foreign investment. A representative for the North Korean government promised relaxed oversight, allowing “foreign investors [to] operate casinos, nightclubs or Japanese lounges”. North Korean construction firm Baikdoosan Architects & Engineers (also known as Baekdu Mountain Architects and Engineers) began construction on a pyramid‑shaped hotel in 1987.
The hotel was scheduled to open in June 1989 for the 13th World Festival of Youth and Students, but problems with building methods and materials delayed completion. Had it opened on schedule, it would have surpassed the Westin Stamford to become the world’s tallest hotel, and would have been the seventh-tallest building in the world.
據報導, 大型酒店的計畫是對韓國雙龍集團1986年建成的世界最高酒店–新加坡威斯汀斯坦福德酒店的回應。朝鮮領導層設想, 該專案是西方投資者進入市場的管道。成立了一家名為 ryugyong 酒店投資與管理公司, 以吸引價值2.3億美元的外國投資。朝鮮政府的一位代表承諾放鬆監管, 允許 “外國投資者經營賭場、夜總會或日本休息室”。朝鮮建築公司 baikdoosan 建築師和工程師 (又名 baekdu 山建築師和工程師) 于1987年開始建造金字塔形酒店。
酒店原定于1989年6月在第十三屆世界青年和學生節開幕, 但建築方法和材料方面的問題推遲完成。如果如期開業, 它將超過威斯汀斯坦福德酒店, 成為世界上最高的酒店, 也將是世界第七高的建築。
Construction halts
In 1992, after the building had reached its full architectural height, work was halted due to the economic crisis in North Korea following the collapse of the Soviet bloc. Japanese newspapers estimated the cost of construction was $750 million, consuming 2 percent of North Korea’s GDP.
For over a decade, the unfinished building sat vacant and without windows, fixtures, or fittings, appearing as a massive concrete shell. A rusting construction crane remained at the top, which the BBC called “a reminder of the totalitarian state’s thwarted ambition”. According to Marcus Noland, in the late 1990s, the European Union Chamber of Commerce in Korea inspected the building and concluded that the structure was irreparable. Questions were raised regarding the quality of the building’s concrete and the alignment of its elevator shafts, which some sources said were “crooked”.
In a 2006 article, ABC News questioned whether North Korea had sufficient raw materials or energy for such a massive project. A North Korean government official told the Los Angeles Times in 2008 that construction was not completed “because [North Korea] ran out of money”.
Though mocked-up images of the completed hotel had appeared on North Korean stamps during the initial construction period, the North Korean government ignored the building’s existence during the construction hiatus even though it dominated the Pyongyang skyline. The government manipulated official photographs in order to remove the unfinished structure from the skyline, and excluded it from printed maps of Pyongyang.
The halt in construction, the rumours of problems and the mystery about its future led foreign media sources to dub it “the worst building in the world”, “Hotel of Doom” and “Phantom Hotel”.
1 9 9 2年, 該建築達到完整的建築高度後, 由於蘇聯集團崩潰後朝鮮經濟危機, 工程停止。日本報紙估計, 建設成本為 7. 5億美元, 占朝鮮 gdp 的 2%。
十多年來, 未完工的建築空無一人, 沒有窗戶、固定裝置或配件, 顯得像一個巨大的混凝土外殼。一輛鏽跡斑斑的建築吊車仍在頂端, 英國廣播公司稱這是 “提醒這個極權主義國家被挫敗的野心”。據 marcus noland 說, 1990 年代末, 韓國的歐洲聯盟商會視察了該建築, 得出的結論是, 該建築無法彌補。有人對建築混凝土的品質和電梯軸的對齊提出了問題, 一些消息人士說, 這些混凝土是 “歪的”。
在 2 0 0 6年的一篇文章中, 美國廣播公司新聞質疑朝鮮是否有足夠的原材料或能源來進行如此大規模的專案。 一名朝鮮政府官員在2008年告訴《洛杉磯時報》, “因為 (朝鮮) 的錢用完了”, 建設沒有完成。
儘管在最初的施工期間, 已建成酒店的類比圖片出現在朝鮮郵票上, 但朝鮮政府在施工中斷期間忽視了該建築的存在, 儘管它主導了平壤的天際線.政府操縱官方照片, 將未完工的結構從天際線上移開, 並將其排除在平壤的印刷地圖之外。
建築的停止、問題的傳言和對其未來的神秘, 導致外國媒體將其打造成 “世界上最差的建築”、”末日酒店” 和 “幻影酒店”。

Construction resumes

In April 2008, after 16 years of inactivity, work on the building was restarted by the Egyptian company Orascom Group. The firm, which had entered into a US$400 million deal with the North Korean government to build and run a 3G mobile phone network, said that their telecommunications deal was not directly related to the Ryugyong Hotel work.

In 2008 North Korean officials stated that the hotel would be completed by 2012, coinciding with the 100th anniversary of the birth of the “Eternal President”, Kim Il-sung. In 2009, Orascom’s Chief Operating Officer Khaled Bichara noted that they “had not had too many problems” resolving the reported structural issues of the building, and that a revolving restaurant will be located at the top of the building.
In July 2011, it was reported that the exterior work was complete. Features that Orascom had installed include exterior glass panels and telecommunications antennae.[26] In September 2012, photographs taken by Koryo Tours were released, showing the interior for the first time. There were few fixtures or furnishings.
2008年4月, 在經歷了16年的不活動之後, 埃及 orascom group 公司重新開機了大樓的施工。該公司與朝鮮政府達成了一項4億美元的協定, 以建設和運營3g 手機網路, 該公司表示, 他們的電信交易與琉球酒店的工作沒有直接關係。
2008年, 朝鮮官員表示, 酒店將于2012年完工, 恰逢 “永恆總統” 金日成誕辰100周年。2009年, orascom 首席運營官 khaled bichara 指出, 他們在解決所報告的建築結構問題時 “沒有遇到太多問題”, 大樓頂部將設一間旋轉餐廳。
2011年7月, 據報告, 外部工作已經完成。orascom 安裝的功能包括外牆玻璃面板和電信天線。2012年9月, 高麗旅遊公司拍攝的照片首次發佈, 顯示內部。幾乎沒有固定裝置或傢俱。
Cancelled opening in 2013
In November 2012, international hotel operator Kempinski announced it would be running the hotel which was expected to partially open in mid‑2013. In March 2013, plans to open the hotel were suspended. Kempinski clarified its earlier statements saying that only “initial discussions” had ever occurred, but that no agreement had been signed because “market entry is not currently possible”.
Kempinski did not elaborate on its reasons, but commentators suggested that international tensions related to the 2013 North Korean nuclear test, economic risks, and delays in construction probably played a part.
2012年11月, 國際酒店運營商 kempinski 宣佈將運營該酒店, 預計該酒店將于2013年年中部分開業。2013年3月, 酒店開業計畫暫停。kempinski 澄清了其先前的聲明, 稱只進行了 “初步討論”, 但由於 “目前不可能進入市場”, 因此沒有簽署任何協定。
凱賓斯基沒有詳細說明其原因, 但評論員認為, 與 2 0 1 3年朝鮮核子試驗有關的國際緊張局勢、經濟風險和施工延誤可能起到了一定作用。
Renewed work on building
In late 2016 there were indications of renewed activity, and a report that a representative of Orascom had visited North Korea. In 2017 and early 2018, there were signs of work at the site, with access roads being constructed. In April 2018, it was reported that a large LED display featuring the North Korean flag had been added to the top of the building. By May, an LED display had been added to one entire side of the structure, and there were reports that the building was being readied for occupation. By July, the LED display was showing animations and movie scenes.
2016年底, 有跡象表明活動恢復, 有報導稱, orascom 的一名代表訪問了朝鮮。2017年和 2018年初, 該工地出現了施工跡象, 正在修建通道。據報導, 2 0 1 8年 4月, 在樓頂增加了一個帶有朝鮮國旗的大型 led 顯示幕。到了 5月份, 結構的整個一側都增加了一個 led 顯示幕, 有報導稱, 該建築正在做好入夥的準備。到了 7月, led 顯示幕正在顯示動畫和電影場景。
Ryugyong Hotel, Pyongyang, North Korea

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