Norman Robert Foster, OM, FRIBA, FCSD, RDI (born 1 June 1935) is an English architect. His company, Foster and Partners, has an international design practice. He is the United Kingdom’s biggest builder of landmark office buildings.
He is one of Britain’s most prolific architects of his generation. In 1999, he was awarded the Pritzker Architecture Prize, often referred to as the Nobel Prize of architecture. In 2009 Foster was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award in the Arts category.
Norman Robert Foster，OM，FRIBA，FCSD，RDI（1935年6月1日出生）是英國建築師。 他的公司Foster and Partners擁有國際設計實踐。 他是英國最大的標誌性辦公樓建築商。
他是英國同時代最多產的建築師之一。 1999年，他被授予普利茲克建築獎，通常被稱為諾貝爾建築獎。 2009年，福斯特被授予阿斯圖里亞斯王子藝術獎。
Foster was born to Robert Foster and Lilian Smith in 1935 in Reddish, Stockport, Cheshire. They moved, soon after his birth, two miles to 4 Crescent Grove in Levenshulme, Manchester, which they rented for fourteen shillings (70p) a week: Foster has no recollection of Reddish. Foster’s parents were diligent, hard workers – so diligent that Foster, as an only child, felt their heavy workload restricted his relationship with them and he was often looked after by neighbours or other family members. He attended Burnage Grammar School for Boys in Burnage. In a Guardian interview in 1999, Foster said he always felt ‘different’ at school and was bullied and he retired into the world of books. He considered himself quiet and awkward in his early years often making faux pas.
Foster described Manchester as “one of the workshops of the world” and “the embodiment of a great city”, his father, Robert, worked at Metropolitan-Vickers, Trafford Park which fuelled Foster’s interest in engineering and design. He was fascinated with engineering and the process of designing. He says that caused him to pursue a career designing buildings. Specific interests included aircraft, a hobby he maintains today; and trains, generated by viewing passing trains on the railway outside his terraced home during his childhood.
He left school at 16 and worked in the Manchester City Treasurer’s office. Next, he joined the National Service in the Royal Air Force. After he was discharged, in 1956 Foster attended the University of Manchester’s School of Architecture and City Planning. He graduated in 1961. Later, Foster won the Henry Fellowship to the Yale School of Architecture, where he earned his Master’s degree Foster also met Richard Rogers at Yale. He then travelled in America for a year. He returned to the UK in 1963. Then he set up an architectural practice as Team 4 with Rogers and the sisters Georgie and Wendy Cheesman. Georgie (later Wolton) was the only one of the team that had passed her RIBA exams. This allowed them to set up in practice on their own. Team 4 quickly earned a reputation for high-tech industrial design.
1935年，福斯特出生於羅伯特福斯特和莉蓮史密斯，位於柴郡斯托克波特的雷迪森。在他出生後不久，他們搬到了曼徹斯特Levenshulme的4英里新月林（4英里），他們以每週14先令（70便士）的價格出租：Foster沒有回憶起Reddish。福斯特的父母是勤奮，勤奮的工作者 – 如此勤奮，福斯特作為一個獨生子女，感到他們繁重的工作量限制了他與他們的關係，他經常受到鄰居或其他家庭成員的照顧。他參加了Burnage的Burnage Grammar School for Boys。在1999年的一次衛報採訪中，福斯特說他在學校總覺得“與眾不同”並被欺負，他退休後進入書籍世界。他認為自己早年很安靜和尷尬，經常做出失禮。
他16歲離開學校，在曼徹斯特城財務主管辦公室工作。接下來，他加入了皇家空軍的國家服務部。出院後，福斯特於1956年就讀於曼徹斯特大學建築與城市規劃學院。他於1961年畢業。後來，福斯特獲得了耶魯大學建築學院的亨利獎學金，在那裡他獲得了碩士學位，福斯特也在耶魯大學遇到了理查德羅傑斯。然後他在美國旅行了一年。他於1963年回到英國。然後他與Rogers和姐妹Georgie和Wendy Cheesman建立了第4隊的建築實踐。 Georgie（後來的Wolton）是唯一一支通過RIBA考試的球隊。這使他們能夠自己在實踐中建立起來。 Team 4很快贏得了高科技工業設計的聲譽。
Foster took a job as assistant to a contract manager with John Bearshaw and Partners, a local architectural practice. The staff advised him, that if he wished to become an architect, he should prepare a portfolio of drawings using the perspective and shop drawings from Bearshaw’s practice as an example. Bearshaw was so impressed with the drawings that he promoted the young Foster to the drawing department of the practice.
In 1956 Foster won a place at the University of Manchester School of Architecture and City Planning. Foster was not eligible for a maintenance grant so took up a number of part-time jobs to fund his studies, becoming an ice-cream salesman, night-club bouncer and working night shifts at a bakery to make crumpets. He combined these with self-tuition via visits to the local library in Levenshulme. Foster took a keen interest in the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Oscar Niemeyer and graduated from Manchester in 1961.
Foster won the Henry Fellowship to the Yale School of Architecture, where he met future business partner Richard Rogers and earned his master’s degree. Vincent Scully encouraged Foster and Rogers to travel in America for a year. After returning to the UK in 1963 he set up an architectural practice as Team 4 with Rogers and the sisters Georgie and Wendy Cheesman. Georgie (later Wolton) was the only one of the team that had passed her RIBA exams allowing them to set up in practice on their own. Team 4 quickly earned a reputation for high-tech industrial design.
福斯特擔任當地建築事務所John Bearshaw and Partners的合同經理助理。工作人員告訴他，如果他希望成為一名建築師，他應該使用Bearshaw的實踐中的視角和商店圖紙來準備一組圖紙作為例子。 Bearshaw對圖紙印象深刻，他將年輕的Foster推廣到了實踐的繪圖部門。
1956年，福斯特在曼徹斯特大學建築與城市規劃學院獲得一席之地。福斯特沒有資格獲得維修補助金，所以他開始從事一些兼職工作以資助他的學業，成為一名冰淇淋推銷員，夜總會保鏢和在麵包店工作夜班以製作烤餅。他通過參觀Levenshulme的當地圖書館將這些與自學相結合。福斯特對Frank Lloyd Wright，Ludwig Mies van der Rohe，Le Corbusier和Oscar Niemeyer的作品產生了濃厚的興趣，於1961年畢業於曼徹斯特。
福斯特贏得了耶魯大學建築學院的亨利獎學金，在那裡他遇到了未來的商業夥伴理查德羅傑斯，並獲得了碩士學位。 Vincent Scully鼓勵福斯特和羅傑斯在美國旅行一年。 1963年回到英國後，他與Rogers以及姐妹Georgie和Wendy Cheesman一起建立了第4隊的建築實踐。 Georgie（後來的Wolton）是唯一一支通過RIBA考試的球隊，允許他們自己進行練習。 Team 4很快贏得了高科技工業設計的聲譽。
Foster + Partners
Foster and Partners London Office
After Team 4 went their separate ways, Foster and Wendy Cheesman founded Foster Associates, which later became Foster and Partners in 1967. A long period of collaboration with American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller began in 1968 and continued until Fuller’s death in 1983. They collaborated on several projects that became catalysts in the development of an environmentally sensitive approach to design – including the Samuel Beckett Theatre project.
Originally they concentrated on industrial buildings. The turning point was the 1969 administrative and leisure center for Fred. Olsen Lines in London Docklands, where workers and managers are not separated any more. Foster and Partners’ breakthrough building in the UK was the Willis Faber & Dumas headquarters in Ipswich, of 1974. The client was a family run insurance company which wanted to restore a sense of community to the workplace. Foster created open plan office floors long before open-plan became the norm. In a town not over-endowed with public facilities, the roof gardens, 25 metre swimming pool and gymnasium enhanced the quality of life for the company’s 1200 employees. The building has a full-height glass façade moulded to the medieval street plan and contributes drama, subtly shifting from opaque, reflective black to a glowing backlit transparency as the sun sets. The design was inspired by the Daily Express Building in Manchester a work Foster admired in his youth. The building is now Grade I* listed.
The Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts, an art gallery and museum on the campus of the University of East Anglia, Norwich, was one of the first major public buildings to be designed by Foster, completed in 1978, and became grade II* listed in December 2012. In 1990 Foster’s design for the Terminal Building at London Stansted Airport was awarded the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture / Mies van der Rohe Award.
Foster gained a reputation for designing office buildings. In the 1980s he designed the HSBC Main Building in Hong Kong for HSBC. The building is marked by its high level of light transparency, as all 3500 workers have a view to Victoria Peak or Victoria Harbour. Foster said that if the firm had not won the contract it would probably have been bankrupted. Foster believes that attracting young talent is essential, and is proud that the average age of people working for Foster and Partners is 32, just like it was in 1967.
在第4隊分道揚，之後，Foster和Wendy Cheesman成立了Foster Associates，後來於1967年成為Foster and Partners。與美國建築師Richard Buckminster Fuller長期合作始於1968年並一直持續到Fuller於1983年去世。他們合作幾個項目成為開發環境敏感設計方法的催化劑 – 包括塞繆爾貝克特劇院項目。
最初他們專注於工業建築。轉折點是弗雷德1969年的行政和休閒中心。倫敦碼頭區的奧爾森線，工人和經理不再分開。 Foster and Partners在英國的突破性建築是1974年在伊普斯威奇的Willis Faber＆Dumas總部。該客戶是一家家庭經營的保險公司，希望恢復工作場所的社區感。福斯特在開放式計劃成為常態之前很久就創建了開放式辦公樓層。在一個沒有超過公共設施的小鎮，屋頂花園，25米長的游泳池和健身房提高了公司1200名員工的生活質量。該建築擁有一個全高度的玻璃幕牆，模仿中世紀的街道平面，有助於戲劇化，從不透明的反光黑色巧妙地轉變為太陽落山時發光的背光透明度。設計的靈感來自曼徹斯特的每日快車大廈，這是他年輕時羨慕的作品。該建築現已列入I級*。
福斯特在設計辦公樓方面享有盛譽。在20世紀80年代，他為匯豐銀行設計了香港匯豐銀行主樓。該建築的透明度很高，因為所有3500名工人都可以看到太平山頂或維多利亞港。福斯特說，如果公司沒有贏得合同，它可能會破產。福斯特認為，吸引年輕人才至關重要，並為Foster and Partners工作人員的平均年齡為32歲而感到自豪，就像1967年那樣。
Today, Foster + Partners works with its engineers to use computer systems. They pay attention to basic physical laws such as convection. They have created efficient buildings like the Swiss Re London headquarters in London. The walls let in air for passive cooling and then let it out as it warms and rises.
Foster’s earlier designs reflected a sophisticated, machine-influenced high-tech vision. His style has evolved into a more sharp-edged modernity. In 2004, Foster designed the tallest bridge in the world, the Millau Viaduct in Southern France, with the Millau Mayor Jacques Godfrain stating; “The architect, Norman Foster, gave us a model of art.”
In January 2007, The Sunday Times reported that Foster had called in Catalyst, a corporate finance house, to find buyers for Foster + Partners. Foster does not want to retire, but wants to sell his 80-90% holding in the company valued at £300M to £500M.
Foster is a member of the board of Trustees for the architectural charity Article 25. They design, construct and manage safe, sustainable buildings in dangerous parts of the world. He has also been on the Board of Trustees of The Architecture Foundation. The reason for his wealth is he receives 15% of the building cost.
In 2007, he worked with Philippe Starck and Sir Richard Branson of the Virgin Group for the Virgin Galactic plans.
Foster designed the Apple Campus in Cupertino and is currently designing most of their Apple stores. He is also designing Bloomberg’s headquarters in London. He also recently designed the Monaco Yacht club and the McLaren technology centre.
Foster currently sits on the Board of Trustees at architectural charity Article 25 who design, construct and manage innovative, safe, sustainable buildings in some of the most inhospitable and unstable regions of the world. He has also been on the Board of Trustees of the Architecture Foundation.
He has recently set up the Norman Foster Foundation which promotes interdisciplinary thinking and research to help new generations of architects, designers and urbanists to anticipate the future.
Foster recently set up his personal Instagram account under the username @officialnormanfoster where he publishes photos of his everyday life
如今，Foster + Partners與其工程師合作使用計算機系統。他們注意基本的物理定律，如對流。他們創建了高效的建築，如倫敦瑞士再保險倫敦總部。牆壁讓空氣進行被動冷卻，然後在溫度升高時將其釋放出來。
福斯特早期的設計反映了一種複雜的，受機器影響的高科技願景。他的風格已經發展成為一個更加尖銳的現代性。 2004年，福斯特設計了世界上最高的橋樑，法國南部的米洛高架橋，米洛市長Jacques Godfrain說道; “建築師諾曼福斯特給了我們一個藝術模型。”
2007年1月，“星期日泰晤士報”報導福斯特已經召集公司財務公司Catalyst尋找Foster + Partners的買家。福斯特不想退休，但希望將其持有的80-90％股權出售給價值3億英鎊至5億英鎊的公司。
2007年，他與維珍集團的Philippe Starck和Sir Richard Branson一起為維珍銀河計劃工作。