Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia 索菲亞王后藝術歌劇院
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia (Valencian: [paˈlaw ðe lez ˈaɾdz ˈrejna soˈfi.a]; Spanish: Palacio de las Artes Reina Sofía; anglicised as “Reina (Queen) Sofía Palace of the Arts”) is an opera house and cultural centre in Valencia, Spain. It opened on 8 October 2005; its first opera staging was of Beethoven’s Fidelio on 25 October 2006. Tenor and conductor Plácido Domingo has maintained a special relationship with the Palau since its founding and has established a young singers training program there.
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia（瓦倫西亞語：[palawðetlezaɾdzrejnasofi.a];西班牙語：Palacio de las ArtesReinaSofía;被稱為“雷納（女王）索菲亞藝術宮”的歌劇院和文化中心 在西班牙巴倫西亞。 它於2005年10月8日開放; 2006年10月25日，第一次歌劇演出是Beethoven的Fidelio。男高音和指揮PlácidoDomingo自成立以來一直與帕勞保持著特殊的關係，並在那裡建立了一個年輕的歌手培訓計劃。
Queen Sofía Palace of the Arts is the final structure built of a grand City of Arts and Sciences concept designed by the Valencia-born and internationally known architect Santiago Calatrava, which began in 1995. The building was constructed by a joint venture of Dragados and Necso and it was opened on 8 October 2005.
The building rises 14 stories above ground and includes three stories below ground. Its height is 75 metres (246 ft), being the tallest opera house in the world. Under the metallic, expansive curved-roof structure, 230 m (755 ft) in length, the 40,000 m2 (431,000 sq ft) building contains four auditoriums:
The Sala Principal (Main Hall) seats 1,470 people and functions primarily for opera, but it may be converted for dance and other performing arts. The hall has four tiers of seating, one of the largest stages in the world equipped with all major facilities, and the third largest orchestra pit in the world, being capable of housing 120 musicians. The stage has room to build two complete opera settings which makes it possible to play two different operas in two days.
The building suffered a number of incidents after its opening, which hampered initial productions. The first of these was the collapse of the main stage platform while it was bearing the complete set of Jonathan Miller’s production of Don Giovanni in December 2006. That forced the Palau to cancel the last performance of La Bohème and all of La Belle et la Bête, and meant that the management had to reschedule the remainder of the inaugural opera season. In November 2007, the entire cultural complex suffered a series of floods. The recently re-built stage platform was paralysed once again because almost 2 m (7 ft) of water entered the lower floors of the building and wrecked the electronics and the motors of the complex stage equipment, forcing the management to re-schedule the season again, delaying the premiere of Carmen and canceling the opera 1984.
The Auditorium is located above the Main Hall. It seats 1,420 people and its facilities include sound and video systems capable of projecting displays of events taking place in venues below it. Officially given to the managing trust during the 2007–2008 season, it is a spectacular venue with multiple uses, from classical music concerts to political rallies.
Aula Magistral is capable of seating 400 people and is used for chamber music performances and conferences.
Martí i Soler Theatre was constructed below the base of the Palau’s plume and seats 400 people. It is used for theatre productions and as a training centre for the main auditoria. This hall suffered vast damage during the 2007 flooding and its opening was delayed. No equipment had been installed before the flooding, however, so the estimated cost for reconstruction was much lower than it would have been shortly thereafter.
On 21 January 2015, Spanish police arrested the company’s general director, Helga Schmidt, for alleged financial irregularities at the house. She was relieved of her duties with the company on the same day. Davide Livermore has since assumed Schmidt role as general director. In March 2015, the company appointed Roberto Abbado and Fabio Biondi as joint music directors.
該建築物在開放後遭遇了一系列事件，這阻礙了最初的製作。第一個是主舞台平台的倒塌，同時它載有Jonathan Miller在2006年12月製作的全套Don Giovanni。這迫使帕勞取消了LaBohème和La Belle etlaBête的最後一場演出。並且意味著管理層必須重新安排首屆歌劇季的剩餘時間。 2007年11月，整個文化綜合體遭遇了一系列洪水。最近重建的舞台平台再次癱瘓，因為近2米（7英尺）的水進入建築物的較低樓層並破壞了複雜舞台設備的電子設備和電機，迫使管理層重新安排了季節再次，推遲卡門的首映並取消1984年的歌劇。
2015年1月21日，西班牙警方逮捕了該公司的總經理赫爾加施密特，因涉嫌財務違規行為。她在同一天被公司解除了職務。達維德利弗莫爾此後擔任施密特擔任總導演。 2015年3月，公司任命Roberto Abbado和Fabio Biondi為聯合音樂總監。
The general form of the building is lenticular, desarrollanda under a huge metal roof supported by two brackets or “pen”, one at its western end and the other intermediate, on the east end of the cover fully screened.
Calatrava gave the building Palau iconographic character of a monumental sculpture. In form, the building is created by a series of seemingly random volumes, which are unified in an enclosure within two sheets of symmetrical concrete cross section. These forms are topped by a steel sheath sweep, which projects axially from the entrance esplanade along the upper edges of the curvilinear envelope. The resulting structure defines the identity of the Opera, dramatically improving its symbolic and dynamic effect within the landscape, while offering protection to the terraces and facilities underneath.
Different volumes are stacked construction covered with horizontal walk cantilevers protruding from the structure. The core is occupied by the Main Auditorium fully conditioned with lifting modules for the scenario of 480m2, which is in a form of acoustic shell embedded within the cluster.
For open areas, the ceiling and the walls defining the enclosure having an acoustic function while a glass and insulating cover is placed above the chamber hall. The layer surrounding the building allows the outer peripheral circulation to different audiences, garden terraces, cafes and restaurants. These areas are linked by balconies, walks, exterior stairs and elevators, which offers beautiful views of the city and gardens.
With its 230m long and 70m high cover or “pen” is the most representative part of the structure. In addition to its laborious structural and geometric design seeks to convey to the world the artistic nature of the activities taking place inside. It is accompanied by two “shells” of rolled steel in building hugging the outside.
The maximum dimensions of the building envelope, taking into account the curved shapes that give it its shape, is 163 m long and 87 m wide.
The main material used in construction is the white concrete that is part of the major structural supports of the building. The second is the “trencadís” so common in the work of Calatrava.
The two “shells” of rolled steel embrace the building on the outer side have an approximate weight of 3.000tn and are coated with a delicate ceramic coating.
In its construction have been used more than 77,000 cubic meters of concrete, approximately 1,750 meters of piles, 38,500 square meters of granite, more than 20,000 square meters of trencadís, more than 1,450 units of doors, 360 square meters of glass were used, approximately 20,000,000 kilograms of structural corrugated steel, more than 10 million kilograms of structural steel and have moved more than 275,000 cubic meters of earth.
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