Notre-Dame de la Garde
Notre-Dame de la Garde (literally: Our Lady of the Guard) is a Catholic basilica in Marseille, France, and the city’s best-known symbol. The site of a popular Assumption Day pilgrimage, it was the most visited site in Marseille. It was built on the foundations of an ancient fort at the highest natural point in Marseille, a 149 m (489 ft) limestone outcropping on the south side of the Old Port of Marseille.
Construction of the basilica began in 1852 and lasted for 21 years. It was originally an enlargement of a medieval chapel, but was transformed into a new structure at the request of Father Bernard, the chaplain. The plans were made and developed by the architect Henri-Jacques Espérandieu. It was consecrated while still unfinished on June 5, 1864.
The basilica consists of a lower church or crypt in the Romanesque style, carved from the rock, and an upper church of Neo-Byzantine style decorated with mosaics. A square 41 m (135 ft) bell tower topped by a 12.5 m (41 ft) belfry supports a monumental 11.2 m (37 ft) statue of the Madonna and Child made of copper gilded with gold leaf.
An extensive restoration from 2001 to 2008 included work on mosaics damaged by candle smoke, green limestone from Gonfolina which had been corroded by pollution, and stonework that had been hit by bullets during the Liberation of France. The restoration of the mosaics was entrusted to Marseille artist Michel Patrizio, whose workmen were trained in Friuli, north of Venice, Italy. The tiles were supplied by the workshop in Venice which had made the originals.
Notre-Dame de la Garde（字面意思是：聖母衛士）是法國馬賽的天主教大教堂，也是該市最著名的象徵。這是一個受歡迎的假設日朝聖地點，它是馬賽最受歡迎的地點。它建在馬賽最高自然點的一個古堡壘的基礎上，這是一個149米（489英尺）的石灰岩露頭，位於馬賽舊港的南側。
District:Archdiocese of Marseille
Ecclesiastical or organizational status:Minor basilica
Year consecrated :1864
Geographic coordinates:43.2841°N 5.3710°ECoordinates: 43.2841°N 5.3710°E
Architectural style:Byzantine Revival
地理坐標：43.2841°N 5.3710°ECoordinates：43.2841°N 5.3710°E
The rocky outcrop upon which the basilica would be built, is an urgonian limestone peak dating from the Barremian and rising to a height of 162 metres. Due to its height and proximity to the coast, the hill became an important stronghold and lookout point, as well as a landmark for sailing. In 1302 Charles II of Anjou ordered one of his ministers to set beacons along the Mediterranean coast of Provence. One of these beacon sites was the hill of Notre-Dame de la Garde.
建造大教堂的岩石露頭是一個烏爾貢山的石灰岩峰，可追溯到Barremian，高達162米。 由於其高度和靠近海岸，山丘成為重要的據點和瞭望點，也是帆船的標誌性建築。 1302年，安茹的查理二世命令他的一位部長在普羅旺斯地中海沿岸設置信標。 其中一個燈塔站點是Notre-Dame de la Garde山。
In 1214 maître (master) Pierre, a priest of Marseille, was inspired to build a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary on the hill known as La Garde, which belonged to the abbey of Saint-Victor. The abbot granted him permission to plant vines, cultivate a garden and build a chapel. The chapel, completed four years later, appears in an June 18, 1218 papal bull by Pope Honorius III listing the possessions of the abbey. After maître Pierre died in 1256, Notre-Dame de la Garde became a priory. The prior of the sanctuary was also one of four claustral priors of Saint-Victor.
From the time the chapel was founded, surviving wills show bequests in its favour. Also, sailors who survived shipwrecks gave thanks and deposited ex-votos at Notre-Dame of the Sea in the church of Notre-Dame-du-Mont. Towards the end of the 16th century they began going to Notre-Dame de la Garde instead.
The first chapel was replaced at the beginning of the 15th century by a larger building with a richly equipped chapel dedicated to Saint Gabriel.
在1214年，馬賽的牧師皮埃爾（Pierre）受到啟發，他在小山上建造了一座專門為聖瑪麗教堂設立的小教堂，該小教堂屬於聖維克多修道院。方丈允許他種植葡萄，種植花園和建造小教堂。四年後完成的小教堂出現在教皇霍諾里烏斯三世於1218年6月18日教皇的公牛身上，列出了修道院的所有物。在皮埃爾於1256年去世後，Notre-Dame de la Garde成為修道院。庇護所的先前也是聖維克多的四個商業先輩之一。
從教堂成立時起，倖存的遺囑顯示了對它有利的遺產。此外，在沉船殘骸中倖存的水手們在Notre-Dame-du-Mont教堂的海上聖母院（Notre-Dame of the Sea）感謝並存放了前投票。到了16世紀末，他們開始前往Notre-Dame de la Garde。
The exterior of the building features layered stonework in contrasting colours: white Calissane limestone alternates with green sandstone from Golfolina near Florence. Marble and pictorial mosaics in various colours decorate the upper church. A 35 m (115 ft) double staircase leads to a drawbridge, granting access to the crypt and, via another set of stairs, to the church’s main entrance.
建築外部採用對比色的層次石雕：白色的Calissane石灰石與佛羅倫薩附近的Golfolina的綠色砂岩交替。 上層教堂裝飾有各種顏色的大理石和圖案馬賽克。 35米（115英尺）的雙層樓梯通向吊橋，可通往地下室，並通過另一組樓梯進入教堂的正門。
The entrance hall under the bell tower features marble statues of Bishop Eugène de Mazenod and Pope Pius IX, both carved by Joseph-Marius Ramus. Staircases on both sides of the entrance lead to the church above.
The Romanesque crypt is composed of a nave with low barrel vaults, bordered by six side chapels corresponding exactly to those of the upper church. Unlike the upper church, the crypt is dim and somber. The side chapels contain plaques with the names of various donors. The side altars are devoted to saints Philomena, Andrew, Rose, Henry, Louis and Benedict Labre.
The main altar was built of Golfolina stone with columns of Spanish marble. Behind the altar is a statue of the Madonna holding a bouquet, the Vierge au Bouquet. Joseph-Elie Escaramagne obtained this statue for the original chapel in 1804. At first the Madonna held a sceptre, but due to the sceptre’s poor condition, it was replaced by flowers. Two staircases flanking the main altar lead to the sacristy buildings and the choir above, but they are off-limits to the public.
鐘樓下的入口大廳設有EugènedeMazenod主教和Pope Pius IX主教的大理石雕像，兩者均由Joseph-Marius Ramus雕刻而成。入口兩側的樓梯通向教堂上方。
主祭壇由Golfolina石頭建造，帶有西班牙大理石柱。在祭壇後面是麥當娜的雕像，拿著一束花束，Vierge au Bouquet。約瑟夫 – 艾莉埃斯卡拉馬涅於1804年為原始教堂獲得了這座雕像。起初麥當娜手持權杖，但由於權杖的狀況不佳，它被鮮花取代。主祭壇兩側的兩個樓梯通向聖器收藏的建築物和上面的合唱團，但它們對公眾是禁止的。
At a height of 41 metres (135 ft), the square bell tower above the entrance porch has two identical storeys of five blind arches, of which the central arch has a window and a small balcony. This is surmounted by a belfry, with each face composed of a three-light window divided by red granite mullions, behind which are abat-sons. The belfry is covered by a square terrace, which is enclosed by a stone balustrade bearing the arms of the city on each side and an angel with a trumpet at each corner. These four statues were carved by Eugène-Louis Lequesne.
From the square terrace a cylindrical bell tower rises to a height of 12.5 metres (41 ft). It is made of sixteen red granite columns, supporting a 11.2 metres (37 ft) tall statue of the Virgin Mary. A staircase within the bell tower leads to the terrace and to the statue, but is off-limits to the general public.
At the base of the tower, bronze doors by Henri Révoil grant access to the church. The central door panels bear the monogram of the Virgin placed within a circle of pearls resembling the rosary. The tympanum above the main entrance is decorated with a mosaic of the Assumption of the Virgin, patterned after a painting by Louis Stanislas Faivre-Duffer .
在塔的底部，HenriRévoil的青銅門可以進入教堂。中央門板上鑲嵌著聖母的字母組合，放置在一個類似念珠的珍珠圈內。主入口上方的鼓室裝飾著聖母升天的馬賽克，由Louis Stanislas Faivre-Duffer繪畫。
The nave’s interior is 32.7 m long and 14 m wide. Each side chapel measures 3.8 m by 5.4 m. The interior is decorated with 1,200 m2 (13,000 sq ft) of mosaics as well as alternating red and white marble columns and pilasters. Espérandieu wanted a subtle red that would harmonise with the mosaics and not clash too much with the whiteness of the Carrara marble. Jules Cantini, the marble worker, discovered such a red marble with yellow and white veins in the commune of La Celle near Brignoles, Var. For parts higher up, plaster—i.e. reconstituted marble—was used.
The mosaics were created between 1886 and 1892 by the Mora company from Nimes. The tesserae came from Venice and were manufactured by craftsmen at the height of their art. Each panel comprises nearly ten thousand tesserae per square metre, which means that the basilica contains approximately 12 million small squares of 1 to 2 cm2 (0.31 sq in). The floors are covered with approximately 380 m2 (4,100 sq ft) of Roman mosaics with geometric patterns.
教堂中殿的內部長32.7米，寬14米。每個小教堂的長度為3.8米乘5.4米。室內裝飾有1,200平方米（13,000平方英尺）的馬賽克以及紅白相間的大理石柱和壁柱。 Espérandieu想要一種與馬賽克相協調的微妙紅色，而不是與卡拉拉大理石的白度相衝突。大理石工人Jules Cantini在Var的Brignoles附近的La Celle公社發現了一塊帶有黃色和白色紋理的紅色大理石。對於較高的部件，石膏 – 即。使用重組的大理石。
The aisles of the nave are divided into three equal parts, each with a central window that illuminates a side chapel. The external pilasters and arches are composed of alternating green and white stones and voussoirs. Basement windows at ground level allow some daylight into the crypt’s underground chapels. Since the nave is higher than the side chapels, a clerestory with two-light windows illuminates the domes of the nave, although these windows are not visible form the terrace.
The nave is topped by three cupolas decorated on the inside with similar mosaics: on a field of flowers, doves form a circle around a central floret. The colours of the flowers differ for each cupola: white for the southeastern one, blue for the middle and red for the northwestern cupola. Medallions on the pendentives depict scenes from the Old Testament:
教堂中殿的過道分為三個相等的部分，每個部分都有一個中央窗戶照亮一個側面小教堂。 外部壁柱和拱門由交替的綠色和白色寶石和voussoirs組成。 地面的地下室窗戶允許一些日光進入地下室的地下教堂。 由於教堂中殿高於側教堂，所以帶有雙光窗的天窗照亮了教堂中殿的圓頂，儘管從露台上看不到這些窗戶。
教堂中殿頂部是三個圓頂，上面裝飾著類似的馬賽克：在一片鮮花上，鴿子圍繞著一個中央小花形成一個圓圈。 每個沖天爐的花朵顏色各不相同：東南部為白色，中部為藍色，西北部圓頂為紅色。 pendentives上的獎章描繪了舊約中的場景：
Noah’s Ark 諾亞方舟
Rainbow covenant 彩虹契約
Jacob’s ladder 雅各布的階梯
Burning bush 燃燒的灌木
Tables of the Law 法律表
Aaron’s rod 亞倫的杖
Incense burner 香爐
The mosaics of the northwestern cupola depict a grapevine, a thorned lily, an olive branch with silver leaves and a date palm.
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