Architects: Renzo Piano Building Workshop
Photographs: Michel Denancé
Partners In Charge:A.Belvedere, B. Plattner
Collaborator:Architecture Project (Valletta)
Design Team:D.Franceschin, P.Colonna, P.Pires da Fonte, S.Giorgio-Marrano, N.Baniahmad, A.Boucsein, J.Da Nova, T.Gantner, N.Delevaux, N. Byrelid, R.Tse, B.Alves de Campos, J.LaBoskey, A.Panchasara, A.Thompson; S.Moreau
Models:O. Aubert, C.Colson, Y.Kyrkos
Acoustics, Civil, Structural And Mep Engineering:Arup
Stone Consultant:Kevin Ramsey
Theatre Consultant:Daniele Abbado
Theatre Special Equipment:Silvano
設計團隊：D.Franceschin，P.Colonna，P.Pires da Fonte，S.Giorgio-Marrano，N.Baniahmad，A.Boucsein，J.Da Nova，T.Gantner，N.Delevaux，N.Byrelid，R。 Tse，B.Alves de Campos，J.LaBoskey，A.Panchasara，A.Thompson； 莫羅
The ‘City Gate’ project takes in the complete reorganisation of the principal entrance to the Maltese capital of Valletta. The project comprises four parts: the Valletta City Gate and its site immediately outside the city walls, the design for an open-air theatre ‘machine’ within the ruins of the former Royal opera house, the construction of a new Parliament building and the landscaping of the ditch.
“城市之門”項目將完全重組馬耳他首都瓦萊塔的主要入口。 該項目包括四個部分：瓦萊塔城門及其緊鄰城牆的場所，在前皇家歌劇院廢墟內的露天劇場“機器”的設計，新議會大廈的建造和美化環境 溝。
A bridge’s width is usually defined in relation to its length. However, the bridge leading across the ditch to the Valletta City Gate had been repeatedly enlarged over time until it had lost both its initial shape and function, becoming more city square than bridge.
With the aim of resolving this rather unsatisfactory transformation, the project focuses on returning the bridge to its 1633 ‘Dingli’s Gate’ dimensions, by demolishing later additions. This allows passers-by to once again have the sensation of crossing a real bridge, and gives them views of the ditch and fortifications.
Valletta’s first city gate, which was probably a single tunnel through the city’s ramparts, has been remodelled through the years, considerably altering the image of a fortified city gate. The most recent modification, completed 50 years ago, involved demolishing 32m of the city wall, distorting the impact of the entrance into the city.
The first objective of the project was therefore to reinstate the ramparts’ original feeling of depth and strength and to reinforce the narrowness of the entrance to the city, while opening up views of Republic Street. The new city gate is a ‘breach’ in the wall only 8m wide. The relationship between the original fortifications and those that have been reconstructed is made clear by the insertion of powerful 60mm-thick steel ‘blades’ that slice through the wall between old and new.
因此，該項目的第一個目標是恢復城牆最初的深度和力量感，並增強城市入口的狹窄程度，同時開放共和街的景觀。 新的城門是僅8m寬的牆壁中的“裂口”。 原來的防禦工事與重建的防禦工事之間的關係通過插入強大的60毫米厚的鋼製“刀片”而清晰明了，該刀片在新舊之間切穿。
The key element of this redevelopment was opening the gate to the sky. The section of Pope Pius V Street that formerly ran immediately inside the gate at a raised level has been demolished and replaced by two wide, gently sloping flights of steps to each side of the new gate, inspired by the stairs that had framed the gate before the construction of Freedom Square. These stairs link the bastions of St James’s Cavalier and St John’s Cavalier to the lower level Republic Street. This rearrangement frees the fortifications from the arcade that formerly obscured them, allowing them to be seen to their full height and power.
重建的關鍵要素是向天空敞開大門。 教皇庇護五世街原先在高架閘門內立即進入的那段路段已被拆除，取而代之的是兩條通向新閘門兩側的緩緩傾斜的階梯狀台階，其靈感來自於之前築成閘門的樓梯 自由廣場的建設。 這些樓梯將聖詹姆斯騎士和聖約翰騎士的堡壘連接到較低的共和國街。 這種重新佈置使防禦工事從以前掩蓋了防禦工事的拱廊中解放出來，使他們可以充分發揮其力量和威力。
The gate and the ditch will be linked by a stairway and a lift with panoramic views, allowing visitors to descend to the depths of the ditch, now planted with gardens. The car park that formerly occupied the ditch has been replaced by lush, refreshing gardens – an ideal place for a stroll or relaxation, a very pleasant new space to explore. Open-air events can also be organised here against the historical backdrop.
閘門和溝渠將通過樓梯和享有全景的電梯相連，從而使遊客可以下降到現已種滿花園的溝渠深處。 以前佔據著溝渠的停車場已被鬱鬱蔥蔥，令人耳目一新的花園所取代，這是散步或放鬆的理想場所，是一個非常宜人的新探索空間。 也可以在歷史背景下在這裡組織露天活動。
The architecture of the new city gate is very restrained, giving an impression of strength and austerity, stripped of extraneous decoration that would undermine its timeless, honest quality. Its tapered shape and the two great steel poles, each 25m high, are enough to lend this breach in the wall the status of the Valletta City Gate.
The gateway is made of immense blocks of stone, delimited and framed by the tall steel ‘blades’ that are used to highlight the junction of old and new – steel and stone in a dialogue of nature, strength and history. A new ‘hard stone’ quarry on Gozo was opened up specifically to provide stone for this project.
The parliament building is made up of two massive blocks in stone that are balanced on slender columns to give the building a sense of lightness, the whole respecting the line of the existing street layout. The northernmost block is principally given over to the parliament chamber, while the south block accommodates members of parliament’s offices and the offices of the Prime Minister and Leader of the Opposition.
Creating a porous urban block was at the forefront of the building’s volumetric design. The two blocks are separated by a central courtyard, which also serves as the main entrance to the building. The courtyard is conceived in such a way that views through to St James’s Cavalier from Republic Street are not obscured. The new parliament building is detached from the St James’s Cavalier bastion, highlighting the latter’s structure and historic size as part of the city’s fortifications.
在建築物的體積設計中，創建多孔的城市街區是最重要的。 這兩個街區由中央庭院隔開，中央庭院也用作建築物的主要入口。 院子的設計方式使得從“共和國街”一直到聖詹姆斯騎士的視野都不會被遮擋。 新的議會大樓與聖詹姆斯的騎士堡壘分離，突出了後者的結構和歷史規模，成為該市防禦工事的一部分。
議會的外牆是用堅固的石材裝飾的。 經過雕刻，彷彿被太陽的方向和周圍的景色侵蝕了，從而形成了一種功能齊全的設備，該設備可以過濾太陽輻射，同時允許室內自然採光，同時保持建築物的視野。 這些立面的每一個都由一台數控機床雕刻而成。 結果是一種石頭建築既適合其歷史背景，又是尖端技術的產物。
Generally it is the density and dynamism of a building’s ground floor that brings it to life, driving a hive of activity in the rest of the building; this is how the ground floor was conceived here, as a flexible cultural space, fully fitted out with a full range of multimedia services. It is an ideal space for temporary or permanent exhibitions, all fully visible from outside the building, serving as a sort of cultural outpost at the entrance to Valletta.
通常，是建築物底層的密度和活力使它栩栩如生，從而在建築物的其餘部分推動了活動的發展。 這就是底層的構想，即靈活的文化空間，完全配備了各種多媒體服務。 這是舉行臨時展覽或永久展覽的理想場所，所有展覽都可以從建築物外部完全看到，並作為瓦萊塔入口處的一種文化前哨。
Certain organisations and parliament-related activities will be housed on the building’s basement level, which opens onto a planted, shaded courtyard. The old Malta railway tunnel is also connected to this lower level garden space, restoring the old underground structure that had been used as a garage, and making it accessible to the public.
Energy use and environmental considerations are principal components in the design of this building. On the one hand, stone is used for the building’s facade to diminish solar heat gain and to allow natural ventilation. Stone is also effective as part of the building’s geothermal heat exchanger, with 40 geothermal boreholes sunk into rock to depths of 140m, 100m below sea-level.
能源使用和環境因素是該建築設計的主要組成部分。 一方面，石材被用於建築物的外牆，以減少太陽熱能的吸收並實現自然通風。 石材還可以作為建築物地熱熱交換器的有效部分，其中40個地熱鑽孔沉入岩石中，深度為140m，低於海平面100m。
In addition, the roof is covered with 600 sq m of photovoltaic panels – an ambitious energy strategy that allows the building to generate 80% of the energy required to heat it in the winter and 60% of its requirements to cool it in the summer months.
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