Architects: Patterson Associates
Photographs: Patrick Reynolds
Manufacturers: Figueras, Rondo
Antoni Gaudí once stated that his temple, the Sagrada Família in Barcelona, would “artistically represent the truths of religion and the glorification of God and His Saints”. In New Plymouth, the Len Lye Centre aims to create a modern version of a temple but, instead of devotion to God (or a bank or corporate HQ), this temple is devoted to the work of one artist, Len Lye (1901–1980). However, art isn’t the only deity here; an exciting communion between architecture and spectator has emerged also.
Visitors to the Len Lye Centre are arrested by a colonnade of gleaming stainless steel which rises up from the ground, in a repeating koru pattern, to form a magnificent theatre curtain. The shiny, undulating surface offers distorted reflections of everything that faces it: hallucinogenic patterns present the world as if through a giant kaleidoscope, which is apt when you consider that Lye is known for his devotion to ‘motion’ in the form of avant-garde films and kinetic sculptures.
Optical illusions banish indifference on the part of the viewer, who is forced to stop and watch the pink, fluffy clouds swirling past (or any other natural and built phenomena that present themselves: birds, cars, modernist office blocks and heritage hotels). People are invited also to recreate themselves in front of this architecture.
安東尼·高迪曾經說過，他的聖殿，位於巴塞羅那的聖家堂，將“從藝術上代表宗教的真理以及對神和聖人的榮耀”。在新普利茅斯，Len Lye中心旨在創建一座現代化的神廟，但該神廟不是獻給上帝（或銀行或公司總部），而是獻給一位藝術家Len Lye（1901–1980年）的作品）。但是，藝術並不是這裡唯一的神靈。建築和觀眾之間的激動人心的交流也已經出現。
Patterson Associates’ plan for the Len Lye Centre was inspired by the megarons of the classical world, which can be seen in the procession of the layout: an interpretation of the colonnade, vestibule and inner sanctum. But also, it refers to Polynesian forms and ideas, continuing the practice’s thematic use of indigenous patterns to drive the design elements.
Patterson Associates的Len Lye中心計劃受到古典世界的兆隆級元素的啟發，在佈局過程中可以看到：對柱廊，前庭和內部聖殿的解釋。而且，它還指的是波利尼西亞的形式和思想，延續了實踐中對土著模式的主題使用，以驅動設計元素。
The façade consists of 20 monolithic 14m-high pre-cast concrete columns. Full-height, glazed panels draw light in between the columns during the day and reflect light back out at night. Each column weighs from 30 to 50 tonnes. “This project was really about the art of construction,” remarked Martin Stephens from Clelands Construction. “It was technically challenging and difficult to build, but highly fulfilling,” he states, echoing a remark by Steve Scott, from New Plymouth-based metal fabricators Rivet, who said, “Our sheet metalworkers really took a lot of pride in this project”. Rivet moulded and buffed the marine-grade stainless steel on the façade to a No. 8 polished finish to achieve the highly reflective surface. Scott explains that “it looks like glass under the microscope”, ensuring it acts in much the same way in terms of cleaning.
外立面由20塊14m高的整體預製混凝土柱組成。全高的玻璃板白天在兩列之間吸收光線，而在晚上將光線反射回去。每列重30至50噸。 “這個項目實際上是關於建築藝術的，”克萊蘭德建設公司的馬丁·斯蒂芬斯評論道。他說：“這在技術上具有挑戰性，難以建造，但成就斐然。”他迴盪了位於新普利茅斯的金屬加工商Rivet的史蒂夫·斯科特（Steve Scott）的話，他說：“我們的鈑金加工人員為此項目感到非常自豪”。鉚釘將立面上的海事級不銹鋼模製成型並打磨成8號拋光面，以獲得高反射性的表面。斯科特解釋說：“在顯微鏡下，它看起來像玻璃”，確保其在清潔方面的作用大致相同。
Potentially strong reflections were an initial concern for the architects (who originally planned for the façade to be built from black stainless steel; however, this proved to be scratchable) so studies were carried out utilising both computer and physical testing. It is no wonder they were worried, given that London’s concave-shaped Walkie Talkie skyscraper, nicknamed ‘Walkie Scorchie’, channelled “the sun’s rays into a concentrated beam onto Eastcheap, capable of singeing carpets, blistering paintwork and even melting parts of a car’s bodywork”, according to The Guardian newspaper.
潛在的強烈反射是建築師（最初計劃將立面用黑色不銹鋼建造的建築師；但是，這被證明是可刮擦的），因此他們首先進行了研究，因此他們使用計算機和物理測試進行了研究。難怪他們擔心，因為倫敦凹形的Walkie Talkie摩天大樓被暱稱為“ Walkie Scorchie”，將“太陽的光線射入了聚光的光束，照射到Eastcheap上，該地毯能夠燒毛地毯，起泡的油漆甚至熔化汽車的部分部件。車身”，據《衛報》報導。
Fortunately for Pattersons, modelling studies analysed the angles of incidence and reflections onto the ground throughout the seasons and delivered exactly what it said would occur. While there is heat and light radiating off the building, there is just enough to be useful during Taranaki’s winters.
The Centre is truly a west-coast project, as it was constructed by an estimated 90 per cent locally sourced workforce. Richard Emmett, from Whanganui firm Emmetts Civil Construction, produced “a beautiful result in the undulating concrete forms; it’s all about craft,” commented Andrew Mitchell, project director at Patterson Associates. Simon Rees, director of the Len Lye Centre, explained that Lye had an “addiction to stainless steel and high-tensile metal” because of its ability to interact with people.
該中心是一個真正的西海岸項目，因為它是由估計90％的本地勞動力組成的。旺格努伊公司Emmetts Civil Construction的Richard Emmett產生了“在起伏的混凝土形式中產生了美麗的結果；一切都與工藝有關”，Patterson Associates項目總監Andrew Mitchell說道。 Len Lye中心主任西蒙·里斯（Simon Rees）解釋說，由於Lye具有與人互動的能力，因此“對不銹鋼和高強度金屬成癮”。
In fact, the façade tells the story of why Lye originally moved to New Plymouth, having found local collaborators with relevant technical expertise to realise his kinetic sculptures at a large scale. Local industrial stainless steel, produced for the dairy and engineering industries, transferred well into his art and also into the architecture we see today. Andrew Patterson, director of Pattersons Associates, identifies stainless steel as “essentially the local stone of New Plymouth”.
實際上，立面講述了Lye最初搬到新普利茅斯的原因，他找到了具有相關技術專長的本地合作者來大規模實現他的動態雕塑。為乳製品和工程行業生產的本地工業不銹鋼不僅很好地轉移到他的藝術作品中，而且也轉移到了我們今天看到的建築中。 Pattersons Associates的負責人安德魯·帕特森（Andrew Patterson）將不銹鋼確定為“實質上是新普利茅斯的本地石材”。
The main entrance into the reception/shop is via the adjacent Govett-Brewster Art Gallery, which was originally a 1920s’ cinema, the Regent Theatre, until, in 1970, local heiress Monica Brewster donated a large sum of money to transform the building into an art gallery for New Plymouth. Described as “a futurist”, Brewster was also a founder of another great local asset, the Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust: a public garden on the edge of Mt Taranaki.
接待處/商店的主要入口是通過相鄰的Govett-Brewster藝術畫廊，該畫廊最初是1920年代的電影攝政劇院，直到1970年，當地女繼承人Monica Brewster捐贈了巨額資金，將這座建築變成了新普利茅斯的美術館。被描述為“未來主義者”的布魯斯特還是另一項重要的當地資產的創始人，普基蒂杜鵑花信託基金會（Pukeiti Rhododendron Trust）：塔拉納基山（Mt Taranaki）邊緣的公共花園。
In fact, surprisingly, this remote city has long held the arts in high regard, with its renowned coastal walkway, Wind Wand, also by Len Lye (built posthumously), Kinetika, a fusion of art, design and engineering, and WOMAD festival. Meanwhile, the lush Pukekura Park is surely the prettiest inner-city park in the country.
Instrumental in helping develop the city’s arts focus, The Len Lye Foundation instigated the Centre, with considerable funding from John Matthews, and a trust was set up for the purpose. Also, New Plymouth is fortunate to have a district council that understands that developing the cultural life of the city inadvertently means supporting its growth.
Len Lye基金會在約翰·馬修斯（John Matthews）的大量資助下，促使中心發展了藝術中心，並為此設立了信託基金。同樣，新普利茅斯很幸運地擁有一個區議會，該區議會了解到無意中發展城市的文化生活意味著支持城市的發展。
Inside the entrance is a welcoming reception desk that faces the door and, when you turn around, the retail presents itself. A processional journey then ascends along a series of ramps and into the various galleries and spaces, with no divisions in the circulation. Around the perimeter, blackout blinds on the glazed gaps between the concrete columns can be opened or shut within 10 seconds for curatorial purposes.
Along the first ramp is a door leading to an education room, the Todd Energy Learning Centre, designed to cater for around 6,500 school students each year. Next door, a 62-seat cinema, all in sumptuous red, projects Len Lye’s experimental, hand-painted celluloid films, along with Hollywood-type digital films.
Whilst designing the cinema, Pattersons had to acquire additional knowledge about film. “The theatre brief naturally evolved from just showing Len’s work into being a community facility capable of showing just about anything, including dance and theatre,” explains Mitchell.
Next up, a 9m-high gallery hosts Lye’s large kinetic work. This space has a 2m-deep well underneath the floor to house mechanisms for the artworks, while a large hatch in the roof enables a two-tonne car to be craned in and suspended from the ceiling, if required. Between the lined plasterboard walls, a 400mm cavity ensures that cabling can pop out wherever artwork needs to be fixed.
At the top of this ramp, there is a large gallery, still in the new building, and two galleries at different levels in the existing Govett-Brewster Art Gallery. These retain the feel of the older building, having been given a light-touch refurbishment. The new and existing structures are sliced apart with glazing that pulls light into this 11m-high chamber and into the educational hub. Asymmetrical bridges cross the two buildings at first-floor level.
Overall, the interior possesses a simple honesty in its materiality. No fancy finishes were applied which, of course, helped with the $17-million overall budget, including the refurbishment and earthquake strengthening of Govett-Brewster Art Gallery. Utilising local materials and expertise also ensured a competitive tender process, making this an economical build when you consider the cost of other art galleries built recently.
總體而言，內飾在材質上具有簡單的誠實性。沒有應用任何華麗的飾面，當然，這筆總費用為1,700萬美元的總預算有所幫助，包括Govett-Brewster Art Gallery的翻新和地震加固。考慮到最近建造的其他美術館的成本，利用當地的材料和專業知識也確保了招標過程的競爭性，因此這是一種經濟的建築。
A particularly interesting aspect of the project was the appointment process, which Andrew Patterson described as “one of the most enlightening I’ve ever encountered on a public project” (beyond winning the bid, of course). “This was no tick-box exercise, where it becomes like shooting darts into a dartboard,” explained Mitchell.
該項目的一個特別有趣的方面是任命過程，安德魯·帕特森（Andrew Patterson）將其描述為“我在公共項目上遇到過的最有啟發性的人之一”（當然，除了贏得競標之外）。 Mitchell解釋說：“這不是滴答作響的練習，就像把飛鏢射入飛鏢一樣。”
At the start, Pattersons and a dozen other firms received phone calls to organise introduction meetings with the chair of The Len Lye Foundation, John Matthews, and Anthony Wilson from New Plymouth District Council. The long list was then reduced to a short list of four architectural firms. Each then underwent a four-hour-long interview with various stakeholders, with Sir Miles Warren offering an architectural perspective.
最初，Pattersons和其他十幾家公司接到電話，與新普利茅斯區議會的Len Lye基金會主席John Matthews和Anthony Wilson舉行了介紹會。然後，長名單減少為四個建築公司的簡短名單。然後，每個人都接受了各個利益相關者的為時四個小時的採訪，Miles Warren爵士提供了建築的觀點。
“It was a lovely process from square one,” stated Patterson. “There was no design concept at this stage; it was simply about who we are as people and can we work together?” Patterson Associates was selected and the team then spent three months in workshops with 35 stakeholders before a brief was formulated. “After three months of talking with the stakeholders, the subconscious kicked in and the design came out,” explained Patterson. “It was lovely not to burn cash and to be productive.” That intensive design process with the stakeholders meant that they ended up with “pretty much the same design result”, apart from the addition of the light slot between the buildings.
“從第一個方框開始，這是一個可愛的過程，” Patterson說。 “現階段沒有設計概念；這僅僅是關於我們作為人的身份，我們可以一起工作嗎？”選擇了Patterson Associates，然後團隊在35個利益相關者的研討會上度過了三個月，然後製定了簡短的摘要。 “在與利益相關者進行了三個月的交談之後，潛意識開始了，設計出來了，” Patterson解釋說。 “不浪費現金和提高生產力真是太好了。”與利益相關者的密集設計過程意味著，除了在建築物之間增加了燈槽之外，他們最終獲得了“幾乎相同的設計結果”。
The architects believe that BIM was fundamental in working out the complex geometry of the building in three dimensions, ensuring a seamless transition from design to manufacture. eCubed Workshop’s plant room on the top of the building is huge, and no wonder, because the environmental services make up around 20 per cent of the overall build cost. This highly controlled environment requires 80 per cent relative humidity for international-standard conservation and it is well worth a tour.
建築師認為，BIM是在三個維度上確定建築物的複雜幾何形狀，確保從設計到製造的無縫過渡的基礎。 eCubed Workshop在建築物頂部的廠房很大，這也就不足為奇了，因為環保服務約佔總建造成本的20％。這種高度受控的環境需要80％的相對濕度才能達到國際標準的保護水平，非常值得一遊。
A public piazza on Queen Street is expected to be completed by Christmas 2016 and will, no doubt, provide a suitable surface for those reflections to truly shine, and a place for the people of New Plymouth and, one would hope, New Zealand architecture, to meet and celebrate.
When asked what the Len Lye Centre would have been named, in keeping with his firm’s tradition of naming buildings as ‘identities’ (Anvil, Geyser, Mai Mai, etc.), Patterson says he would have called it “The Len Lye Museum” or “just The Len Lye, like a wharenui or meeting house”.
當被問及Len Lye中心將被命名為什麼名字時，按照他的公司將建築物命名為“身份”（Anvil，Geyser，Mai Mai等）的傳統，Patterson說他會稱其為“ Len Lye博物館”或“只是萊恩鹼液，就像瓦雷努伊或會議室一樣”。
FROM:Construction of the Len Lye Centre
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