Kronstadt Naval Cathedral 克朗斯塔特海軍大教堂
The Naval cathedral of Saint Nicholas in Kronstadt (Russian: Морской Никольский собор, Morskoj Nikol’skij sobor) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral built in 1903–1913 as the main church of the Russian Navy and dedicated to all fallen seamen. The cathedral was closed in 1929, was converted to a cinema, a House of Officers (1939) and a museum of the Navy (1980).
The Russian Orthodox Church reinstalled the cross on the main dome in 2002 and served the first Divine Liturgy in the cathedral in 2005.In 2013, the Patriarch of Russia, with Prime Minister Dmitriy Medvedev and his spouse attending, conducted the ceremony of grand reconsecration in the now fully restored cathedral.
克倫施塔特的聖尼古拉斯海軍大教堂（俄語：МорскойНикольскийсобор，Morskoj Nikol’skij sobor）是俄羅斯東正教大教堂，建於1903–1913年，是俄羅斯海軍的主要教堂，致力於所有墮落的海員。 大教堂於1929年關閉，改建為電影院，參議院（1939）和海軍博物館（1980）。
俄羅斯東正教教堂於2002年在主穹頂上重新安裝了十字架，並於2005年在大教堂裡擔任了第一位神職人員禮拜儀式.2013年，在首相德米特里·梅德韋傑夫（Dmitriy Medvedev）和他的配偶出席的俄羅斯先祖主持了大禮 現在完全恢復的大教堂。
Location:Yakornaya Square 1, Kronstadt, Saint Petersburg
Geographic coordinates:59°59′30.1546″N 29°46′40.3359″ECoordinates: 59°59′30.1546″N 29°46′40.3359″E
Length:77.3 m (interior)
83.2 m (exterior-stairs)
Width:54.4 m (interior)
63.8 m (exterior-stairs)
Interior area:3,000 m² (interior)
3,400 m² (exterior-stairs)
Height (max) 70.6 m (top cross)
Dome dia. (outer) 29.8 m
位置：聖彼得堡，克朗施塔特，Yakornaya Square 1，
地理坐標：59°59′30.1546″ N 29°46′40.3359″ E坐標：59°59′30.1546″ N 29°46′40.3359″ E
圓頂直徑 （外部）29.8 m
The first Orthodox church in Kronstadt was built in 1728–31. The wooden church remained the main place of worship in Russia’s largest naval base until 1840, when the counterweights balancing the church bells broke through the rotting floors and seriously damaged the belltower structure. Emperor Nicholas I personally ordered the closure of the unsafe church and it was demolished in 1841. For the next half century worship occurred in temporary locations — in hospitals, barracks and even rented private houses; a temporary wooden church built in 1861 was inadequate for the ten thousand Kronstadt seamen from the start. Numerous Navy requests for construction funding were turned down or simply left unanswered,despite the fact that the cost of building as large as a contemporary cathedral (200 to 500 thousand roubles) was less than 10% of a pre-dreadnought battleship’s cost (RUB4 to 6 million).
Construction management, extremely centralized until the reign of Alexander II, was gradually decentralized in the 1880s–1890s. The right to initiate individual construction projects passed from the Emperor himself to imperial ministers and department chiefs. In 1896 admiral Pavel Tyrtov, director of the Imperial Russian Navy Ministry, started preparations to build a cathedral in Kronstadt in earnest. Tyrtov insisted that the cathedral be built on the site identified nearly two centuries earlier by Peter I and reasoned that it should not cost more than the new Kharkov cathedral (200,000 roubles).
在亞歷山大二世統治之前，建築管理一直處於高度集中的狀態，在1880至1890年代逐漸分散。發起個人建築項目的權利從皇帝本人轉給了帝國大臣和部門首長。 1896年，俄羅斯帝國海軍部部長帕維爾·季爾托夫（Pavel Tyrtov）上將著手準備在克朗施塔特（Kronstadt）建造一座大教堂。季爾托夫堅稱大教堂要建在彼得一世將近兩個世紀之前確定的地點上，並認為它的造價不應該超過新的哈爾科夫大教堂（200,000盧布）。
In 1897, the Navy declared an international architectural contest for the design of Kronstadt cathedral and established a fund to finance construction. Typically for Russia, the project was sponsored by the state, intended for the state Navy, but initially financed by personal donations of the Navy servicemen and general public. From 1898 to 1913, all servicemen of the Baltic Fleet were charged 1/400 of their salary to finance the construction; this amounted to 280 thousand roubles, not including truly voluntary donations. Later, as the project unfolded, it became obvious that private donations were insufficient and the state treasury paid for most of the costs.
The contest specified cathedral size in terms of number of worshippers — one thousand men, 16 per square sazhen. This was far smaller than contemporary cathedrals built in provincial towns (Nizhny Novgorod — 2,000 worshippers, Kharkiv — 4,000), more on par with “garrison churches” built in the Caucasus and Congress Poland (Kielce — 900 worshippers). The client was well aware of new construction technologies and welcomed their use as long as it helped to balance the budget. The basement level was reserved only for boilers and fuel storage, saving the costs of establishing a second “winter (i.e. heated) church”. The specifications did not prescribe a specific architectural style. Rather, they insisted on cutting costs and prohibited use of such “luxuries” as mosaics or paintings on the inner surface of the dome. These constraints failed the first contest. Only three architects dared to participate, reusing already familiar past drafts; all three were rejected.
The second contest of 1897 also failed; the only draft deemed worthy of execution was too small for the intended purpose. Finally, in 1898, the Navy lifted some of size and cost constraints; this time, the building had to be large enough to be visible from large distance; “the Cross of the cathedral must be the first item visible to incoming ships”. Antony Tomishko, author of Kresty prison, won this contest by presenting a Russian Revival draft following Konstantin Thon’s Russo-Byzantine tradition.
Nicholas II routinely approved the draft; John of Kronstadt called for immediate start of construction work. However, the newly appointed commander of Kronstadt base admiral Stepan Makarov found Tomishko’s draft too weak artistically and too small for the purpose. He requested the Emperor to reconsider his choice; after nearly two years of delays, Nicholas agreed to discard Tomishko’s draft in June 1900.
1897年的第二場比賽也失敗了。唯一值得執行的草案對於預期目的而言太小。最終，在1898年，海軍解除了一些規模和成本限制；這次，建築物必須足夠大才能從遠處看到。 “大教堂的十字架必須是新來的船隻可以看見的第一件物品”。克雷斯蒂監獄的作者安東尼·托米甚科（Antony Tomishko）憑藉康斯坦丁·托恩（Konstantin Thon）的俄羅斯-拜占庭式傳統提出了俄羅斯復興選秀，從而贏得了比賽。
Makarov took control of the project and invited Vasily Kosyakov (1862–1921), already a renowned master of Neo-Byzantine architecture. The process of this choice remains undocumented, however, Kosyakov had worked for the Navy before as the architect of church of Our Lady the Merciful in Saint Petersburg. Kosyakov, still in his twenties, had perfected the optimal proportions of a single-dome, four-apse Byzantine design; his 1888–91 drafts of a church in Astrakhan (itself based on Our Lady the Merciful) were reused all over the Empire. Vasily’s younger brother and partner Georgy Kosyakov (1872–1925) was a talented graphic artist; he worked on interiors and finishes while Vasily handled overall and structural design. Makarov personally instructed Kosyakov that the cathedral must accommodate 5,000 worshippers and follow the historical Byzantine canon.
In 1900–1, Vasily Kosyakov travelled to Istanbul and Greece to refresh his understanding of genuine Byzantine art. In April 1901, he presented two preliminary drafts to the Commission of the Navy; the selected draft was approved by Nicholas II 21 May 1901. Kosyakov departed from his preferred proportions of a tall cathedral with a relatively small main dome; instead he opted for a wide (26 meters) but relatively low dome in line with the proportions of Hagia Sophia. The reason for this change remains undocumented. One version attributes it to interference by Makarov. The admiral once was an attache in Istanbul and was well aware of the genuine Byzantine tradition. Another likely version links the change to direct influence of professor Nikolay Sultanov, Kosyakov’s teacher at the Institution of Civil Engineers, leader of Russian Revival school. In 1895–1904, Kosyakov was managing the construction of Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul in Peterhof designed by Sultanov.
By 1903, Kosyakov brothers produced a complete album containing nearly a thousand graphic sheets detailing the structure, exterior and internal design of yet unbuilt cathedral. Physically, the graphics were executed by Georgy Kosyakov. Plan, structure, external outline is credited to Vasily Kosyakov; detailed artwork of interior finishes to Georgy. Interior features were clearly influenced by Art Nouveau, skillfully integrated into a Byzantine shell and complemented with modern engineering systems. Vasily Kosyakov’s layout also demonstrates influence of Romanesque architecture, notably in the twin belltowers by the sides of the main portal — an extremely uncommon feature in Russian practice.
1900–1年，瓦西里·科雅科夫（Vasily Kosyakov）前往伊斯坦布爾和希臘，以重新了解真正的拜占庭藝術。 1901年4月，他向海軍委員會提交了兩個初步草案。選定的草案經1901年5月21日的尼古拉斯二世批准。科西亞科夫偏離了他偏愛的高圓頂大教堂（主圓頂相對較小）的優先比例；相反，他選擇了寬廣（26米）但相對較低的圓頂，以符合聖索菲亞大教堂的比例。更改的原因仍未記錄。一個版本將其歸因於Makarov的干預。這位海軍上將曾經是伊斯坦布爾的公務員，並且深知真正的拜占庭傳統。另一個可能的版本將這一變化與俄羅斯復興學校負責人，土木工程師學會科索亞科夫老師尼古拉·蘇爾塔諾夫教授的直接影響聯繫起來。 1895年至1904年，科索科夫負責管理由蘇丹阿諾夫（Sultanov）設計的彼得霍夫（Peterhof）的聖彼得大教堂和聖保羅大教堂。
到1903年，科希亞科夫兄弟製作了一張完整的專輯，其中包含近千張圖形紙，詳細介紹了尚未建成的大教堂的結構，外觀和內部設計。從物理上講，這些圖形是由Georgy Kosyakov執行的。計劃，結構，外部輪廓歸功於Vasily Kosyakov；喬治的室內裝飾的詳細藝術品。內部特徵顯然受到了新藝術運動的影響，被巧妙地整合到拜占庭的外殼中，並輔以現代工程系統。瓦西里·科雅科夫（Vasily Kosyakov）的佈局還展示了羅馬式建築的影響力，特別是在主入口兩側的雙鐘樓中-這在俄羅斯實踐中是極為罕見的特徵。
Western (main) facade
Alpha and Omega artwork
27 October 1901, the 14,000 strong garrison of Kronstadt was summoned for the groundbreaking on Anchor Square. Earthwork and work on concrete foundations and a granite base continued through 1902; the walls were laid in a massive ceremony 8 May 1903, with the Emperor in attendance.
Despite social unrest that culminated in the Russian revolution of 1905, the cathedral was structurally complete in 1907; heating and ventilation were operational in 1908, enabling year-round work on the finishes. In 1907, Kosyakov brothers switched to producing detailed drawings and instructions to craftsmen and suppliers of interior finishes. 19 August 1908, they presented the revised album of these drawings to the Romanovs. Nicholas and Alexandra responded with numerous amendments and changes that were implemented by spring of 1909.
In summer of 1909 the external finishes were completed, and the scaffolds removed. The building was clad in black granite (base and columns) and yellow brick (walls) with terra cotta inserts. Inside, the iconostasis was made of marble from the Urals. The four portals were decorated with mosaic images of Theotokos, Saint Nicholas, Peter, Paul, John of Rila and Mitrofan of Voronezh by Foma Raylian. Most interior paintings were executed by the school of Mikhail Vasilyev; icons were painted by Appolon Troitsky. Adjacent park was designed by E. G. Gilbikh.
The cathedral was equipped with an independent central heating and a central vacuum cleaning system employing a complex network of pressurized manifolds and valves. Electrical lighting employed 5 thousand light bulbs.
The cathedral was consecrated in a public ceremony attended by Nicholas II and his family 10 June 1913. Total cost reached an unprecedented amount of 1,955,000 roubles, not including donations in kind and unpaid labor by the seamen and civilians.
儘管社會動盪在1905年的俄國革命中達到頂峰，但大教堂在1907年結構完整。加熱和通風設備於1908年投入運營，可以對整飾進行全年的工作。 1907年，科希亞科夫兄弟轉而製作詳細的圖紙和說明，以向手工業者和室內裝飾供應商提供。 1908年8月19日，他們向羅曼諾夫夫婦贈送了這些圖紙的修訂專輯。尼古拉斯（Nicholas）和亞歷山德拉（Alexandra）做出了許多回應，並於1909年春季實施了許多修改和變更。
1909年夏天，外部裝修完成，腳手架被拆除。這座建築被黑色花崗岩（底部和圓柱）和黃色磚（牆壁）覆蓋著，上面有兵馬俑嵌件。在內部，聖障由烏拉爾山脈的大理石製成。 Foma Raylian分別用Theotokos，Saint Nicholas，Peter，Paul，Rila的John和Voronezh的Mitrofan的馬賽克圖像裝飾了四個門戶。大多數室內畫是由米哈伊爾·瓦西里耶夫（Mikhail Vasilyev）學校執行的；圖標由Appolon Troitsky繪製。毗鄰公園由E. G. Gilbikh設計。
The cathedral operated as such for only 16 years. It was closed 14 October 1929 by the communist regime and its valuables were nationalized to the state treasury. A small portion of these relics were displayed at the Museum of Navy and the Russian Museum.
In 1930—1931 the communist authorities had the cathedral defaced: its crosses and bells were toppled over and hauled to the foundries. One bell, weighing 4,726 kilograms (second largest) remained in place — either due to technical difficulties or deliberately, as an emergency alarm signal. Internal marble items, including the iconostasis and the memorial boards with names of the fallen seamen, were ripped out, broken or cut and reused for ordinary construction needs. A small number of memorial boards ended up in the Museum of Navy and were “written off” in 1970.
In 1932 the cathedral nave was converted to a cinema, frivolously named New Star (in English, transliterated in Cyrillic) but soon renamed to more appropriate Maxim Gorky; in 1939 the cinema was upgraded to a House of the Officers (akin to a community center) of Kronshtadt garrison. During World War II it closed; the dome received three direct artillery hits. Post-war “reconstruction” of 1953—54 finally converted the cathedral to a functioning concert hall. This time, the builders added a suspended ceiling that isolated the nave from the dome; it remained in place as of the end of 2007. Reduction of military personnel in the 1960s made the concert hall redundant; in 1980 the cathedral reopened as a branch of the Central Museum of Navy.
The Russian Orthodox Church attempted to repossess the cathedral in the 1990s. The first cross to be reinstalled on the main dome was made in 1996 but was not erected due to financial problems. The second attempt, in 2002, employed a heavy helicopter and nearly ended in a disaster: the seven-meter cross fell from the dome and was damaged beyond repair; there were no human injuries. The third cross was successfully erected 24 November 2002. Three years later, 2 November 2005, the church celebrated the first Divine Liturgy in the Naval Cathedral since 1929. In September 2008 the cathedral became operational again, but services were only conducted on special occasions.
The cathedral then underwent extensive repairs, restoration, and improvements, and was reconsecrated on 30 May 2013, by Patriarch Cyril, in time for the cathedral’s centennial anniversary. In his remarks at the reconsecration, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev said the cathedral looked “better than 100 years ago.”
1932年，大教堂的中殿改建為戲院，輕率地命名為“新星”（英語，以西里爾字母音譯），但不久後改名為“馬克西姆·高爾基”。 1939年，電影院升格為克朗施塔特駐軍的官邸（又稱為社區中心）。在第二次世界大戰期間，它關閉了；圓頂受到三門直接砲擊。戰後1953年的“重建” — 54終於將大教堂改建為功能良好的音樂廳。這次，建築商增加了一個吊頂，將中殿與圓頂隔離開來。到2007年底，它仍然存在。1960年代軍事人員的減少使音樂廳變得多餘。 1980年，大教堂作為中央海軍博物館的一個分支重新開放。
然後對大教堂進行了大修，修復和改善，並於2013年5月30日由西里爾牧師（Patrick Archy Cyril）對其進行了修復，以紀念大教堂成立100週年。俄羅斯總統德米特里·梅德韋傑夫（Dmitry Medvedev）在致敬儀式時說，大教堂看起來“比100年前更好”。
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