Dunnottar Castle 鄧諾特城堡

Dunnottar Castle (Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Fhoithear, “fort on the shelving slope”) is a ruined medieval fortress located upon a rocky headland on the northeastern coast of Scotland, about 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Stonehaven. The surviving buildings are largely of the 15th and 16th centuries, but the site is believed to have been fortified in the Early Middle Ages. Dunnottar has played a prominent role in the history of Scotland through to the 18th-century Jacobite risings because of its strategic location and defensive strength. Dunnottar is best known as the place where the Honours of Scotland, the Scottish crown jewels, were hidden from Oliver Cromwell’s invading army in the 17th century. The property of the Keiths from the 14th century, and the seat of the Earl Marischal, Dunnottar declined after the last Earl forfeited his titles by taking part in the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. The castle was restored in the 20th century and is now open to the public.

The ruins of the castle are spread over 1.4 hectares (3.5 acres), surrounded by steep cliffs that drop to the North Sea, 160 feet (49 m) below. A narrow strip of land joins the headland to the mainland, along which a steep path leads up to the gatehouse. The various buildings within the castle include the 14th-century tower house as well as the 16th-century palace. Dunnottar Castle is a scheduled monument, and twelve structures on the site were listed buildings.

鄧諾特城堡(蘇格蘭蓋爾語:DùnFhoithear,“擱架斜坡上的堡壘”)是一座廢墟中世紀堡壘,位於蘇格蘭東北海岸的岩石岬角上,距離斯通黑文以南約2英里(3.2公里)。倖存的建築大部分是在15世紀和16世紀,但據信該遺址在中世紀早期已經得到加強。 Dunnottar因其戰略位置和防禦力而在蘇格蘭歷史上發揮了突出作用,直到18世紀的雅各布派崛起。 Dunnottar最著名的地方是17世紀奧利弗克倫威爾的入侵軍隊中隱藏著蘇格蘭皇室珠寶蘇格蘭榮譽的地方。在最後一位伯爵因參加1715年的雅各布派叛亂而喪失了他的頭銜之後,14世紀的基思的財產以及厄爾·馬里沙爾的位置,鄧諾特爾拒絕了。這座城堡於20世紀恢復,現在開放給公眾。

城堡遺址佔地1.4公頃(3.5英畝),周圍是陡峭的懸崖,落在北海,下方160英尺(49米)。一片狹長的土地將岬角連接到大陸,沿著陡峭的小路通向大門。城堡內的各種建築包括14世紀的塔樓以及16世紀的宮殿。鄧諾特城堡(Dunnottar Castle)是一座預定的紀念碑,現場有12座建築物被列為建築物。

Site information
Owner:Dunecht Estates
Controlled by:Clan Keith, Earl Marischal
Open to
the public:Yes
Site history
In use:Until 1718

所有者:Dunecht Estates
控制人:Clan Keith,Earl Marischal

Dunnottar’s strategic location allowed its owners to control the coastal terrace between the North Sea cliffs and the hills of the Mounth, 2.2 miles (3.5 km) inland, which enabled access to and from the north-east of Scotland. The site is accessed via a steep, 2,600-foot (790 m) footpath (with modern staircases) from a car park on the coastal road, or via a 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) cliff-top path from Stonehaven. Dunnottar’s several buildings, put up between the 13th and 17th centuries, are arranged across a headland covering around 1.4 hectares (3.5 acres). The dominant building, viewed from the land approach, is the 14th-century keep or tower house. The other principal buildings are the gatehouse; the chapel; and the 16th-century “palace” which incorporates the “Whigs’ Vault”.

Dunnottar的戰略位置使其所有者能夠控制北海懸崖與內陸2.2英里(3.5公里)的Mounth山之間的沿海露台,從而可以進出蘇格蘭東北部。 通過沿海公路停車場的陡峭的2,600英尺(790米)小徑(帶現代樓梯)或從斯通黑文(Stonehaven)通過3公里(1.9英里)的懸崖頂通道進入該地點。 Dunnottar的幾座建築物建於13世紀和17世紀之間,分佈在佔地1.4公頃(3.5英畝)的岬角上。 從土地入口看,占主導地位的建築是14世紀的保留或塔樓。 其他主要建築物是門樓; 小教堂; 和16世紀的“宮殿”,其中包括“輝格的穹頂”。

The approach to the castle is overlooked by outworks on the “Fiddle Head”, a promontory on the western side of the headland. The entrance is through the well-defended main gate, set in a curtain wall which entirely blocks a cleft in the rocky cliffs. The gate has a portcullis and has been partly blocked up. Alongside the main gate is the 16th-century Benholm’s Lodging, a five-storey building cut into the rock, which incorporated a prison with apartments above. Three tiers of gun ports face outwards from the lower floors of Benholm’s Lodging, while inside the main gate, a group of four gun ports face the entrance. The entrance passage then turns sharply to the left, running underground through two tunnels to emerge near the tower house. Simpson contends that these defences are “without exception the strongest in Scotland”, although later writers have doubted the effectiveness of the gun ports. Cruden notes that the alignment of the gun ports in Benholm’s Lodging, facing across the approach rather than along, means that they are of limited efficiency. The practicality of the gun ports facing the entrance has also been questioned, though an inventory of 1612 records that four brass cannons were placed here.

A second access to the castle leads up from a rocky cove, the aperture to a marine cave on the northern side of the Dunnottar cliffs into which a small boat could be brought. From here a steep path leads to the well-fortified postern gate on the cliff top, which in turn offers access to the castle via the Water Gate in the palace. Artillery defences, taking the form of earthworks, surround the north-west corner of the castle, facing inland, and the south-east, facing seaward. A small sentry box or guard house stands by the eastern battery, overlooking the coast.

沿著岬角西側的海角“小提琴頭”的外出工作忽視了城堡的進近。入口通過防禦良好的主門,設置在幕牆上,完全阻擋了岩石峭壁中的裂縫。大門有一個閘門,部分被擋住了。主要大門旁邊是16世紀的Benholm’s Lodging,這是一幢五層高的建築,切入岩石,其中包括一座帶有公寓的監獄。三層槍口從Benholm’s Lodging的較低樓層朝外,而在正門內,一組四個槍口朝向入口。然後入口通道急劇轉向左側,通過兩條隧道在地下運行,在塔樓附近出現。辛普森認為,這些防禦“毫無例外地是蘇格蘭最強的”,儘管後來的作家們對槍口的效力表示懷疑。克魯登指出,Benholm’s Lodging中槍口的對齊,面向穿越而不是沿著,意味著它們的效率有限。面對入口的槍口的實用性也受到了質疑,儘管有1612個記錄表明這裡放置了四個黃銅加農炮。


The late 14th-century tower house has a stone-vaulted basement, and originally had three further storeys and a garret above. Measuring 40 by 36 feet (12 by 11 m), the tower house stood 50 feet (15 m) high to its gable. The principal rooms included a great hall and a private chamber for the lord, with bedrooms upstairs. Beside the tower house is a storehouse, and a blacksmith’s forge with a large chimney. A stable block is ranged along the southern edge of the headland. Nearby is Waterton’s Lodging, also known as the Priest’s House, built around 1574, possibly for the use of William Keith (died 1580), son of the 4th Earl Marischal. This small self-contained house includes a hall and kitchen at ground level, with private chambers above, and has a projecting spiral stair on the north side. It is named for Thomas Forbes of Waterton, an attendant of the 7th Earl.

14世紀晚期的塔樓有一個石拱形的地下室,最初有三層樓和上面的閣樓。 塔樓高40英尺(36英尺×11米),距離山牆高50英尺(15米)。 主要房間包括一個大廳和一個主人的私人房間,樓上有臥室。 塔樓旁邊是一個倉庫,還有一個鐵匠鍛造著一個大煙囪。 一個穩定的區塊位於岬角的南部邊緣。 附近是沃特頓的住宿,也被稱為牧師之家,建於1574年左右,可能是威廉基思(死於1580年)的使用,他是第四任伯爵Marischal的兒子。 這棟小型自助式房屋包括一個位於地面的大廳和廚房,上面設有私人房間,北側有一個突出的螺旋樓梯。 它以第七伯爵的服務員沃特頓的托馬斯福布斯命名。

The palace, to the north-east of the headland, was built in the late 16th century and early to mid-17th century. It comprises three main wings set out around a quadrangle, and for the most part is probably the work of the 5th Earl Marischal who succeeded in 1581. It provided extensive and comfortable accommodation to replace the rooms in the tower house. In its long, low design it has been compared to contemporary English buildings, in contrast to the Scottish tradition of taller towers still prevalent in the 16th century. Seven identical lodgings are arranged along the west range, each opening onto the quadrangle and including windows and fireplace. Above the lodgings the west range comprised a 120-foot (37 m) gallery. Now roofless, the gallery originally had an elaborate oak ceiling, and on display was a Roman tablet taken from the Antonine Wall.At the north end of the gallery was a drawing room linked to the north range. The gallery could also be accessed from the Silver House to the south, which incorporated a broad stairway with a treasury above.

The basement of the north range incorporates kitchens and stores, with a dining room and great chamber above. At ground floor level is the Water Gate, between the north and west ranges, which gives access to the postern on the northern cliffs. The east and north ranges are linked via a rectangular stair. The east range has a larder, brewhouse and bakery at ground level, with a suite of apartments for the Countess above. A north-east wing contains the Earl’s apartments, and includes the “King’s Bedroom” in which Charles II stayed. In this room is a carved stone inscribed with the arms of the 7th Earl and his wife, and the date 1645. Below these rooms is the Whigs’ Vault, a cellar measuring 52 by 15 feet (15.8 by 4.6 m). This cellar, in which the Covenanters were held in 1685, has a large eastern window, as well as a lower vault accessed via a trap-door in the floor. Of the chambers in the palace, only the dining room and the Silver House remain roofed, having been restored in the 1920s. The central area contains a circular cistern or fish pond, 50 feet (15 m) across and 25 feet (7.6 m) deep,and a bowling green is located to the west. At the south-east corner of the quadrangle is the chapel, consecrated in 1276 and largely rebuilt in the 16th century. Medieval walling and two 13th-century windows remain, and there is a graveyard to the south.

宮殿位於岬角的東北部,建於16世紀後期和17世紀中期。它包括圍繞四邊形的三個主翼,大部分可能是1581年成功的第五屆Earl Marischal的作品。它提供了寬敞舒適的住宿,以取代塔樓的房間。在其長而低的設計中,它與當代英國建築相比,而蘇格蘭傳統的高塔仍然在16世紀流行。西邊排列著七個相同的住所,每個住宅都通向四邊形,包括窗戶和壁爐。在住宿區上方,西部範圍包括一個120英尺(37米)的畫廊。現在沒有屋頂,畫廊最初有一個精緻的橡木天花板,展出的是從安東尼牆上取下的羅馬平板電腦。畫廊的北端是一個連接北部範圍的客廳。畫廊也可以從銀樓到南邊進入,其中包括一個寬闊的樓梯和上面的金庫。



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