House of the Blackheads (Riga) 黑頭之家（裡加）
House of the Blackheads (Latvian: Melngalvju nams, German: Schwarzhäupterhaus) is a building situated in the old town of Riga, Latvia. The original building was erected during the first third of the 14th century for the Brotherhood of Blackheads, a guild for unmarried merchants, shipowners, and foreigners in Riga. Major works were done in the years 1580 and 1886, adding most of the ornamentations. The sculptures were made by the workshop of August Volz.
House of the Blackheads（拉脫維亞語：Melngalvju nams，德語：Schwarzhäupterhaus）是一座位於拉脫維亞里加老城區的建築。 原始建築是在14世紀的前三分之一為黑頭兄弟會建立的，這是一個為裡加未婚商人，船東和外國人組成的行會。 主要作品在1580年和1886年完成，增加了大部分的裝飾。 這些雕塑是由August Volz的工作室製作的。
Location: Riga, Latvia
Coordinates: 56 ° 57 ′ N, 24 ° 6 ′ E
The building was bombed to a ruin by the Germans on June 28, 1941 and the remains were demolished by the Soviets in 1948. The current reconstruction was erected from 1995 to 1999 by Valērijs Kargins, the president of Parex Bank.
The building was built in the fourteenth century by the Brotherhood of the Black Heads, a guild for unmarried German merchants in Riga. The house, built in the Gothic style, with its 27 meters height was a large house in the Middle Ages. After the reconstruction of the building in the mid-1990s, the richly decorated façade, which was modeled on Dutch and Flemish guild houses in the mannerist style, is one of the city’s major sights.
該建築建於十四世紀，由黑人兄弟會（Blackhoods）建造，是裡加未婚德國商人的行會。 這座房屋以哥特式風格建造，高27米，是中世紀的一幢大房子。 在20世紀90年代中期重建建築後，裝飾華麗的外觀以荷蘭風格和佛蘭芒公會的風格建造，是該市的主要景點之一。
The house was first mentioned in 1334 as the Neue Haus der Großen Gilde. It served for meetings of German merchants and the German bourgeoisie of the city of Riga. German merchants who were not official citizens of the city joined the Black Heads. Initially, Saint George (protector of knights and warriors) was the patron saint of the guild. Saint Mauritius later became the patron saint, which gave the name Black Heads because Mauritius had a dark skin color. In 1447 the parade hall was rented to the black heads by the city and in 1687 the name Schwarzhäupterhaus was used for the first time. In 1713 the blackheads only became the owner of the building.
On June 29, 1941, the city of Riga was bombed by German troops and the house was largely destroyed. In 1948 the ruin was demolished by the Soviets. There was no building in its place and the market square grew bigger. To prepare for the 800th anniversary of the city, the building was reconstructed between 1993 and 1999.
該房屋於1334年首次被提及為Neue HausderGroßenGilde。它為德國商人和里加市的德國資產階級會議服務。不是該市官方公民的德國商人加入了Black Heads。最初，聖喬治（騎士和戰士的保護者）是行會的守護神。聖毛里求斯後來成為了守護神，因為毛里求斯的皮膚顏色很深，因而得名黑頭。 1447年，遊行大廳被城市租給黑頭，1687年，Schwarzhäupterhaus這個名字首次被使用。 1713年，黑頭只成為了建築物的主人。
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