Plaza Mayor 市長廣場

The Plaza Mayor (English: Main Square) is a major public space in the heart of Madrid, the capital of Spain. It was once the centre of Old Madrid. It was first built (1580–1619) during the Habsburg period of Philip III’s reign. Only a few Spanish blocks away is another famous plaza, the Puerta del Sol. The Plaza Mayor is for the people of Madrid and tourists to shop, walk around, eat, and enjoy the outdoors.

市長廣場(英語:Main Square)是西班牙首都馬德里市中心的主要公共空間。 它曾經是舊馬德里的中心。 它是在菲利普三世統治時期的哈布斯堡時期建造的(1580-1619)。 距離西班牙太陽門廣場僅有幾個西班牙街區。 市長廣場是馬德里人民和遊客購物,四處走走,吃飯,享受戶外活動。

Location:Madrid, Spain
Coordinates:40.415364°N 3.707398°W

坐標:40.415364°N 3.707398°W

History and Architecture
The Plaza Mayor dates back to the 15th century where it was originally called the “Plaza del Arrabal” and was used as the main market of the town. In 1561, the plaza was transferred to the city of Madrid. King Philip II commissioned Classical architect Juan de Herrera to remodel the area. Construction did not begin until Philip III’s reign in 1617. Juan Gómez de Mora continued on the architectural renovation, and was finished two years later in 1619. The Plaza Mayor has suffered 3 major fires in its history. The first was in 1631. Juan Gómez de Mora took on the reconstructions of the plaza following this fire. The second of the fires occurred in 1670, with the architect Tomás Román in charge of the reconstruction. The last fire consumed a third of the square and took place in 1790. Today, the Plaza Mayor’s architecture is credited to Juan de Villanueva. He handled the reconstruction following the massive fire in 1790. Prior to this, the buildings that enclosed the square were five stories. Juan de Villanueva lowered the square’s surrounding buildings to three stories, closed the corners and created large entrances into the squares. Construction after Juan de Villanueva’s death by Antonio López Aguado and Custodio Moreno and was finished in 1854.

Today, the Plaza Mayor is rectangular in shape and highlights the uniformity of the architecture. The Plaza measures 129 m x 94 m (423 ft x 308 ft). 237 balconies are present on the three-story residential buildings that face inward towards the Plaza. To enter or exit The Plaza Mayor, there are ten entrances to choose from, however, there are nine gates. The entrances are named: 7 de Julio, Arco de Triunfo and Felipe III to the North; Sal, Zaragoza and Gerona to the East; Botoneras, Toledo and Cuchilleros to the South; Ciudad Rodrigo to the West. In the center of the square stands the statue of Philip III on a horse, which was placed in 1848. The Plaza Mayor has been the scene of multitudinous events. It has hosted executions in history. Today, it is the location of the annual Christmas market. It has also hosted bullfights and soccer games. Every Sunday and holidays it hosts stamp collecting and coin collecting market in the mornings.

In 1880, the Casa de la Panadería was restored by Joaquín María de la Vega. the Casa de la Panadería is the piece of the façade framed by two two-angled towers. It has been used for many different purposes in history. Its name originates from its original use of the main city bakery.

In 1921 the farmhouse was reformed, and then again in 1935 by Fernando García de Mercadal. In 1960s, the plaza closed itself to road traffic and added underground parking below the plaza. The last of the performances in the Plaza Mayor, held in 1992, consisted of mural decoration, the work of Carlos Franco, of the Casa de la Panadería, which represents mythological figures such as the goddess Cibeles. Today, the Plaza Mayor is a major tourist spot, but is also celebrated by the citizens of Madrid and has become a piece of Spanish culture. Next to the Plaza Mayor at Arco de Cuchilleros Street is the Restaurante Botin, the oldest restaurant of the world.

市長廣場的歷史可以追溯到15世紀,最初被稱為“Plaza del Arrabal”,並被用作該鎮的主要市場。 1561年,廣場被轉移到馬德里市。國王菲利普二世委託古典建築師Juan de Herrera改造該地區。建築工作直到1617年菲利普三世統治才開始。胡安·戈麥斯·德·莫拉繼續進行建築改造,兩年後於1619年完工。市長廣場歷史上遭遇了三次重大火災。第一次是在1631年。在這場大火之後,JuanGómezdeMora接管了廣場的重建工作。第二次火災發生在1670年,由建築師TomásRomán負責重建。最後一場大火消耗了廣場的三分之一,發生在1790年。今天,市長廣場的建築被歸功於Juan de Villanueva。他在1790年大火之後處理了重建工作。在此之前,圍繞廣場的建築物是五層樓。 Juan de Villanueva將廣場周圍的建築物降低到三層樓,封閉了角落,並在廣場上建造了大型入口。 Juan de Villanueva因AntonioLópezAguado和Custodio Moreno去世後的建築工作於1854年完成。

如今,市長廣場呈矩形,突出了建築的一致性。廣場的尺寸為129米x 94米(423英尺x 308英尺)。三層住宅樓內有237個陽台,朝向廣場。要進入或離開市長廣場,有十個入口可供選擇,但有九個門。入口名為:7 de Julio,Arco de Triunfo和Felipe III to the North;薩爾,薩拉戈薩和赫羅納東部; Botoneras,Toledo和Cuchilleros到南方; Ciudad Rodrigo到西部。在廣場的中心矗立著一匹馬的菲利普三世雕像,該馬位於1848年。市長廣場一直是眾多活動的場景。它曾在歷史上主持過處決。今天,它是年度聖誕市場的所在地。它還舉辦過鬥牛和足球比賽。每個星期天和節假日,它都會在早上舉辦集郵和收集硬幣的市場。

1880年,Casa delaPanadería由JoaquínMaríadela Vega修復。 Casa delaPanadería是由兩個雙角塔構成的外立面。它已被用於歷史上的許多不同目的。它的名字源於它對主要城市麵包店的原始用途。

1921年,農舍進行了改造,1935年又由費爾南多·加西亞·德梅爾卡達爾改造。 20世紀60年代,廣場封閉了道路交通,並在廣場下方增加了地下停車場。 1992年舉行的市長廣場的最後一次表演包括壁畫裝飾,卡洛斯佛朗哥的卡拉德拉帕納迪亞的作品,代表神話中的女神如Cibeles。今天,市長廣場是一個主要的旅遊景點,但也受到馬德里市民的歡迎,並已成為一種西班牙文化。毗鄰Arco de Cuchilleros街的市長廣場是世界上最古老的餐廳Restaurante Botin。

There is a bronze statue of King Philip III at the center of the square, created in 1616 by Jean Boulogne and Pietro Tacca. Giambologna’s equestrian statue of Philip III dates to 1616, but it was not placed in the center of the square until 1848. The statue was a gift from the Duke of Florence at that time. It was Queen Isabel II ordered to move it from Casa de Campo to become the centerpiece of the Plaza Mayor.

在廣場的中心有一座國王菲利普三世的銅像,由Jean Boulogne和Pietro Tacca於1616年創建。 Giambologna的菲利普三世的騎馬雕像可以追溯到1616年,但直到1848年它才被放置在廣場的中心。這座雕像是當時佛羅倫薩公爵的禮物。 女王伊莎貝爾二世被命令將其從Casa de Campo搬到市長廣場的中心位置。


FROM:Videomapping IV Centenario de la Plaza Mayor de Madrid (versión completa)

FROM:A Walk Around The Plaza Mayor, Madrid

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