Salisbury Cathedral 索爾茲伯里大教堂
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England. The cathedral is regarded as one of the leading examples of Early English architecture: its main body was completed in 38 years, from 1220 to 1258.
Since 1549, the cathedral has had the tallest church spire in the United Kingdom, at 404 feet (123 m). Visitors can take the “Tower Tour”, in which the interior of the hollow spire, with its ancient wooden scaffolding, can be viewed. The cathedral has the largest cloister and the largest cathedral close in Britain at 80 acres (32 ha). It contains a clock which is among the oldest working examples in the world, and one of the four surviving original copies of the 13th-century Magna Carta. In 2008, the cathedral celebrated the 750th anniversary of its consecration.
The cathedral is the mother church of the Diocese of Salisbury and is the seat of the Bishop of Salisbury, currently Nick Holtam.
自1549年以來，大教堂擁有英國最高的教堂尖頂，高度為404英尺（123米）。 遊客可以參觀“塔之旅”，其中可以看到空心尖頂的內部，其古老的木製腳手架。 大教堂擁有最大的修道院和英國最大的大教堂，佔地80英畝（32公頃）。 它包含一個時鐘，它是世界上最古老的工作示例之一，也是13世紀大憲章的四個倖存原始副本之一。 2008年，大教堂慶祝其奉獻750週年。
Denomination:Church of England
Architect(s):Richard Poore; Elias of Dereham
Style:Early English Gothic
Length:442 feet (135 m)
Choir height:84 feet (26 m)
Number of towers:1
Tower height :225 feet (69 m) (without spire)
Number of spires:1
Spire height:404 feet (123 m)
Diocese: Salisbury (since 1220)
Acting: Ed Probert
Canon Chancellor:Ed Probert
Canon Treasurer:Robert Titley
Organist(s):John Challenger, David Halls
Chapter clerk:Jackie Molnar
Lay member(s) of chapter: Jane Barker
傳統：盎格魯 – 天主教
建築師：Richard Poore; Dereham的伊萊亞斯
風琴師：John Challenger，David Halls
As a response to deteriorating relations between the clergy and the military at Old Sarum Cathedral, the decision was taken to re-site the cathedral, with the seat of the bishopric being moved to New Sarum, or Salisbury. The move occurred during the tenure of Richard Poore, a rich man who gave the land on which the new cathedral was built.
Construction was paid for by donations, principally from the canons and vicars of southeast England, who were asked to contribute a fixed annual sum until the building was completed. A legend tells that the Bishop of Old Sarum shot an arrow in the direction he would build the cathedral; the arrow hit a deer, which died in the place where Salisbury Cathedral is now. The cathedral crossing, Old Sarum, and Stonehenge are reputed to be aligned on a ley line, although Clive L. N. Ruggles asserts that the site, on marshland, was chosen because a preferred site several miles to the west could not be obtained.
The foundation stone was laid on 28 April 1220. Much of the freestone for the cathedral came from the Teffont Evias Quarry. As a result of the high water table on the new site, the cathedral was built on foundations only 4 feet (1.2 m) deep, and by 1258 the nave, transepts, and choir were complete. The only major sections begun later were the cloisters, added in 1240, the chapter house in 1263, the tower and spire, which at 404 feet (123 m) dominated the skyline from 1320. Because most of the cathedral was built in only 38 years, it has a single consistent architectural style, Early English Gothic. In total, 70,000 tons of stone, 3,000 tons of timber and 450 tons of lead were used in the construction of the cathedral.
Although the spire is the cathedral’s most impressive feature, it has proved troublesome. Together with the tower, it added 6,397 tons (6,500 tonnes) to the weight of the building. Without the addition of buttresses, bracing arches and anchor irons over the succeeding centuries, it would have suffered the fate of spires on other great ecclesiastical buildings (such as Malmesbury Abbey, 1180 to 1500; Lincoln Cathedral, 1311 to 1549; and Chichester Cathedral, 1402 to 1861) and fallen down; instead, Salisbury became the tallest church spire in the country on the collapse at Lincoln in 1549. The large supporting pillars at the corners of the spire are seen to bend inwards under the stress. The addition of reinforcing tie-beams above the crossing, designed by Christopher Wren in 1668, halted further deformation. The beams were hidden by a false ceiling installed below the lantern stage of the tower.
Significant changes to the cathedral were made by the architect James Wyatt in 1790, including the replacement of the original rood screen and demolition of a bell tower which stood about 320 feet (98 m) northwest of the main building. Salisbury is one of only three English cathedrals to lack a ring of bells, the others being Norwich Cathedral and Ely Cathedral. However, its medieval clock does strike the time with bells every 15 minutes.
作為對舊薩魯姆大教堂神職人員和軍隊之間關係惡化的回應，決定重新安置大教堂，主教座位被移至New Sarum或Salisbury。這一舉動發生在理查德·波爾（Richard Poore）的任期內，理查德·波爾（Richard Poore）是一位富人，他為新大教堂建造了土地。
施工是通過捐贈支付的，主要來自英格蘭東南部的教規和牧師，他們被要求在建築物完工之前提供固定的年度總和。一個傳說告訴老薩魯姆主教向他建造大教堂的方向射箭;箭射中了一隻鹿，它現在死在索爾茲伯里大教堂的地方。大教堂十字路口，Old Sarum和巨石陣被認為是在ley線上對齊，儘管Clive L. N. Ruggles斷言，選擇沼澤地的地點是因為無法獲得距離西部幾英里的首選地點。
奠基石於12月28日奠基。大教堂的大部分自由石都來自Teffont Evias Quarry。由於新場地的高水位，大教堂建在僅4英尺（1.2米）深的基礎上，到1258年，教堂中殿，橫斷面和合唱團完工。後來開始的唯一主要部分是修道院，在1240年增加，1263年的章屋，塔和尖頂，在140英尺（123米）從1320年佔據了天際線。因為大部分的大教堂建於38年，它具有一致的建築風格，早期英國哥特式。在大教堂的建設中，總共使用了7萬噸石材，3000噸木材和450噸鉛。
Building and architecture
The west front is of the screen-type, clearly deriving from that at Wells. It is composed of a stair turret at each extremity, with two niched buttresses nearer the centre line supporting the large central triple window. The stair turrets are topped with spirelets, and the central section is topped by a gable which contains four lancet windows topped by two round quatrefoil windows surmounted by a mandorla containing Christ in Majesty. At ground level there is a principal door flanked by two smaller doors. The whole is highly decorated with quatrefoil motifs, columns, trefoil motifs and bands of diapering.
The west front was almost certainly constructed at the same time as the cathedral. This is apparent from the way in which the windows coincide with the interior spaces. The entire facade is about 108 feet (33 m) high and wide. It has been said that the front was built on a scale smaller than was initially planned. It lacks full-scale towers and/or spires as can be seen, for example at Wells, Lincoln, Lichfield, etc. The facade was disparaged by Alec Clifton-Taylor, who considered it the least successful of the English screen facades and a travesty of its prototype (Wells). He found the composition to be uncoordinated, and the Victorian statuary “poor and insipid”.
The front accommodates over 130 shallow niches of varying sizes, 73 of which contain a statue. The line of niches extends round the turrets to the north, south and east faces. There are five levels of niches (not including the mandorla) which show, from the top, angels and archangels, Old Testament patriarchs, apostles and evangelists, martyrs, doctors and philosophers and, on the lower level, royalty, priests and worthy people connected with the cathedral. The majority of the statues were placed during the middle of the 19th century, however seven are from the 14th century and several have been installed within the last decade.
Salisbury Cathedral is unusual for its tall and narrow nave, and has visual accentuation due to the use of light grey Chilmark stone for the walls and dark polished Purbeck marble for the columns. It has three levels: a tall pointed arcade, an open gallery and a small clerestory. Lined up between the pillars are notable tombs such as that of William Longespée, half brother of King John and the illegitimate son of Henry II, who was the first person to be buried in the cathedral.
索爾茲伯里大教堂因其高而窄的教堂中殿而異常，並且由於牆壁採用淺灰色Chilmark石材，柱子採用深色拋光Purbeck大理石，因此具有視覺上的重點。 它有三個層次：一個高大的尖拱廊，一個開放的畫廊和一個小天窗。 在柱子之間排列的是著名的墓葬，例如WilliamLongespée，約翰國王的同父異母兄弟和亨利二世的私生子，他是第一個被埋葬在大教堂裡的人。
Chapter house and Magna Carta
The chapter house is notable for its octagonal shape, slender central pillar and decorative medieval frieze. It was redecorated in 1855-9 by William Burges. The frieze circles the interior above the stalls and depicts scenes and stories from the books of Genesis and Exodus, including Adam and Eve, Noah, the Tower of Babel, and Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
The chapter house also displays the best-preserved of the four surviving original copies of Magna Carta. This copy came to Salisbury because Elias of Dereham, who was present at Runnymede in 1215, was given the task of distributing some of the original copies. Elias later became a canon of Salisbury and supervised the construction of the cathedral.
章屋以其八角形，細長的中柱和裝飾性的中世紀楣而著稱。 它由William Burges於1855 – 9年重新裝修。 帶狀飾物環繞著攤位上方的內部，描繪了創世記和出埃及記的場景和故事，包括亞當和夏娃，挪亞，巴別塔，以及亞伯拉罕，以撒和雅各。
章節中還展示了大憲章中四部倖存原版的保存最完好的內容。 這份副本來到了索爾茲伯里，因為在1215年出席Runnymede的Dereham的Elias被賦予了分發一些原件的任務。 伊萊亞斯後來成為了索爾茲伯里的一個經典，並監督了大教堂的建設。
The Salisbury cathedral clock, which dates from about AD 1386, is supposedly the oldest working modern clock in the world. The clock has no face; all clocks of that date rang out the hours on a bell. It was originally located in a bell tower that was demolished in 1792. Following this demolition, the clock was moved to the Cathedral Tower, where it was in operation until 1884. The clock was then placed in storage and forgotten until it was discovered in an attic of the cathedral in 1928. It was repaired and restored to working order in 1956. In 2007, remedial work and repairs were carried out.
索爾茲伯里大教堂的時鐘可以追溯到公元1386年左右，據說是世界上最古老的工作現代時鐘。 時鐘沒有臉; 那個日期的所有時鐘按響時鐘敲響了。 它最初位於一座1792年拆除的鐘樓內。拆除後，時鐘被移至大教堂塔樓，直到1884年才開始運作。時鐘被放置在倉庫中並被遺忘，直到它被發現。 1928年大教堂的閣樓。它於1956年修復並恢復工作狀態。2007年，進行了補救工作和修繕工作。
Don’t you think it’s addictive?
Want to know more about the beauty of architecture?
Come and join our members to explore the beauty of architectural design.
The above article is purely for appreciation and sharing purposes, as well as the construction of new technology and the public can be in-depth understanding of the information at the same time there are sources, will be able to query, no use of the document as a commercial transaction, if illegal, please inform the We will immediately remove the site, thank you for cooperation.