Durham Cathedral 達勒姆大教堂
The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, commonly known as Durham Cathedral and home of the Shrine of St Cuthbert, is a cathedral in the city of Durham, United Kingdom. It is the seat of the Bishop of Durham, the fourth-ranked bishop in the Church of England hierarchy. The present cathedral was begun in 1093, replacing the Saxon ‘White Church’, and is regarded as one of the finest examples of Norman architecture in Europe. In 1986 the cathedral and Durham Castle were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Durham Cathedral holds the relics of Saint Cuthbert, transported to Durham by Lindisfarne monks in the ninth century, the head of Saint Oswald of Northumbria, and the remains of the Venerable Bede. In addition, its library contains one of the most complete sets of early printed books in England, the pre-Dissolution monastic accounts, and three copies of the Magna Carta.
From 1080 until 1836 the Bishop of Durham enjoyed the powers of an Earl palatine, being given military and civil as well as religious leadership in order to protect the Scottish Border. The cathedral walls formed part of Durham Castle, one of the residences of the Bishop of Durham.
There are daily Church of England services at the cathedral, with the Durham Cathedral Choir singing daily except Mondays and when the choir is on holiday. The cathedral is a major tourist attraction within the region, attracting 755,000 visitors in 2015.
達勒姆大教堂（Durham Cathedral）擁有聖卡斯伯特（Saint Cuthbert）的遺物，由九世紀的林迪斯法僧侶（Lindisfarne monks），諾桑比亞的聖奧斯瓦爾德（Saint Oswald）的頭部以及尊者比德（Berable）的遺體運往達勒姆（Durham）。此外，它的圖書館包含英國早期印刷書籍中最完整的一套，解散前的修道院帳戶，以及三部大憲章。
Denomination:Church of England
Style:Romanesque, Norman, Decorated
Years built:1093–1133, additions until 1490.
Length:469 feet (143 m) (interior)
Nave width:81 feet (25 m) (inc aisles)
Nave height:73 feet (22 m)
Choir height:74 feet (23 m)
Number of towers:3
Tower height:218 feet (66 m) (central tower)
144 feet (44 m) (western towers)
Number of spires:0 (2 on western towers until 1658)
Diocese:Durham (since 635 as Lindisfarne, 995 as Durham)
Precentor:Michael Hampel (Vice-Dean)
Canon(s):Sophie Jelley (Dir. Mission)
Simon Oliver (Professor)
Archdeacon Ian Jagger
Director of music Daniel Cook (Organist and Master of the Choristers)
Organist(s):Francesca Massey (Sub-Organist)
Chapter clerk:Amanda Anderson
Lay member(s) of chapter Cathy Barnes
Ivor Stolliday (Treasurer)
Archdeacon Ian Jagger
The see of Durham takes its origins from the Diocese of Lindisfarne, founded by Saint Aidan at the behest of Oswald of Northumbria around 635. The see lasted until 664, at which point it was translated to York. The see was then reinstated at Lindisfarne in 678 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Among the many saints produced in the community at Lindisfarne Priory, Saint Cuthbert, who was Bishop of Lindisfarne from 685 until his death on Farne Island in 687, is central to the development of Durham Cathedral.
After repeated Viking raids, the monks fled Lindisfarne in 875, carrying Saint Cuthbert’s relics with them. The diocese of Lindisfarne remained itinerant until 882, when a community was reestablished in Chester-le-Street. The see had its seat here until 995, when further incursions once again caused the monks to move with the relics. According to local legend, the monks followed two milk maids who were searching for a dun-coloured cow and were led into a peninsula formed by a loop in the River Wear. At this point Cuthbert’s coffin became immovable. This trope of hagiography was offered for a sign that the new shrine should be built here. A more prosaic set of reasons for the selection of the peninsula is its highly defensible position, and that a community established here would enjoy the protection of the Earl of Northumbria, as the bishop at this time, Aldhun, had strong family links with the earls. Nevertheless, the street leading from The Bailey past the Cathedral’s eastern towers up to Palace Green is named Dun Cow Lane due to the miniature (dun) cows that used to graze in the pastures nearby.
Initially, a very simple temporary structure was built from local timber to house the relics of Cuthbert. The shrine was then transferred to a sturdier, probably wooden, building known as the White Church. This church was itself replaced three years later in 998 by a stone building also known as the White Church, which was complete apart from its tower by 1018. Durham soon became a site of pilgrimage, encouraged by the growing cult of Saint Cuthbert. King Canute was one early pilgrim, granting many privileges and much land to the Durham community. The defendable position, flow of money from pilgrims and power embodied in the church at Durham ensured that a town formed around the cathedral, establishing the early core of the modern city.
盎格魯 – 撒克遜
經過反复的維京襲擊，僧侶們於875年逃離了林迪斯法恩，帶著聖卡斯伯特的遺物。 Lindisfarne教區一直保持流動，直到882年，當時在Chester-le-Street重新建立了一個社區。看到它的位置直到995年，當進一步的入侵再次導致僧侶與遺物一起移動。根據當地的傳說，僧侶跟隨兩名正在尋找一頭色情牛的牛奶女傭，並被引入一個由River Wear環形成的半島。此時，卡斯伯特的棺材變得不可動搖了。這個傳記的比喻是為了在這裡建造新神社的標誌。選擇半島的更為平凡的原因是其高度防禦的地位，在這裡建立的社區將享受諾桑比亞伯爵的保護，因為此時的主教奧爾德恩與伯爵有著強烈的家庭聯繫。 。儘管如此，從貝利（Bailey）經過大教堂東部塔樓到達格林宮（Palace Green）的街道被命名為敦牛巷（Dun Cow Lane），因為曾經在附近牧場吃草的小型（dun）奶牛。
The present cathedral was designed and built under William of St. Carilef (or William of Calais) who was appointed as the first prince-bishop by King William the Conqueror in 1080. Since that time, there have been major additions and reconstructions of some parts of the building, but the greater part of the structure remains true to the Norman design. Construction of the cathedral began in 1093 at the eastern end. The choir was completed by 1096 and work proceeded on the nave of which the walls were finished by 1128, and the high vault complete by 1135. The chapter house, partially demolished in the 18th century, was built between 1133 and 1140. William died in 1096 before the building’s completion, passing responsibility to his successor, Ranulf Flambard, who also built Framwellgate Bridge, the first crossing of the River Wear in the town. Three bishops, William of St. Carilef, Ranulf Flambard and Hugh de Puiset, are all buried in the rebuilt chapter house.
In the 1170s, de Puiset, after a false start at the eastern end where the subsidence and cracking prevented work from continuing, added the Galilee Chapel at the west end of the cathedral. The five-aisled building occupies the position of a porch, it functioned as a Lady chapel and the great west door was blocked during the Medieval period by an altar to the Virgin Mary. The door is now blocked by the tomb of the bishop Thomas Langley. The Galilee Chapel also holds the remains of the Venerable Bede. The main entrance to the cathedral is on the northern side, facing towards the castle.
In 1228 Richard le Poore came from Salisbury where a new cathedral was being built in the Gothic style.At this time, the eastern end of the cathedral was in urgent need of repair and the proposed eastern extension had failed. Le Poore employed the architect Richard Farnham to design an eastern terminal for the building in which many monks could say the Daily Office simultaneously. The resulting building was the Chapel of the Nine Altars. The towers also date from the early 13th century, but the central tower was damaged by lightning and replaced in two stages in the 15th century, the master masons being Thomas Barton and John Bell.
The Shrine of Saint Cuthbert was located in the eastern apsidal end of the cathedral. The location of the inner wall of the apse is marked on the pavement and Cuthbert’s tomb is covered by a simple slab. However, an unknown monk wrote in 1593:
[The shrine] was estimated to be one of the most sumptuous in all England, so great were the offerings and jewells bestowed upon it, and endless the miracles that were wrought at it, even in these last days.
— Rites of Durham
現在的大教堂是在St. Carilef（或加萊的威廉）的威廉下設計和建造的，他被1080年的征服者威廉王（King William the Conqueror）任命為第一位王子主教。從那時起，一些部分得到了重大的補充和重建。建築物的大部分，但結構的大部分仍然適用於諾曼設計。大教堂的建造始於1093年的東端。合唱團於1096年完成，工作在中殿進行，牆壁在1128年完成，高穹頂在1135年完成。章屋在18世紀被部分拆除，建於1133年至1140年之間。威廉死於在建築物建成之前1096年，將責任交給了他的繼任者Ranulf Flambard，他還建造了Framwellgate橋，這是該鎮River Wear的第一個渡口。三位主教，威廉的聖卡里爾夫，Ranulf Flambard和Hugh de Puiset都被埋葬在重建的分館裡。
1228年，理查德勒波爾來自索爾茲伯里，在那裡建造了一座以哥特式風格建造的新教堂。此時，大教堂的東端迫切需要維修，擬建的東部延伸部分失敗了。 Le Poore聘請了建築師Richard Farnham為該建築設計了一個東部終端，許多僧侶可以同時對日報辦公室說。由此產生的建築是九祭壇的教堂。這些塔樓的歷史可以追溯到13世紀初，但是中央塔樓被閃電破壞，並在15世紀分為兩個階段，主要的泥瓦匠是托馬斯巴頓和約翰貝爾。
At the beginning of this century two of the altars in the Nine Altars Chapel at the east end of the Cathedral were re-dedicated to Saint Hild of Whitby and Saint Margaret of Scotland: a striking painting of Margaret (with her son, the future king David) by Paula Rego was dedicated in 2004. Nearby a plaque, first installed in 2011 and rededicated in 2017, commemorates the Scottish soldiers who died as prisoners in the Cathedral after the Battle of Dunbar in 1650. The remains of some of these prisoners have now been identified in a mass grave uncoverered during building works in 2013 just outside the Cathedral precinct near Palace Green.
In 2004 two wooden sculptures by Fenwick Lawson, Pietà and Tomb of Christ, were placed in the Nine Altars Chapel, and in 2010 a new stained glass window of the Transfiguration by Tom Denny was dedicated in memory of Michael Ramsey, former Bishop of Durham and Archbishop of Canterbury.
In 2016 former monastic buildings around the cloister, including the Monks’ Dormitory and Prior’s Kitchen, were re-opened to the public as Open Treasure, an extensive exhibition displaying the Cathedral’s history and possessions.
Durham Cathedral was featured in the Harry Potter films as Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, where it had a spire digitally added onto the top of the famous towers. It is also featured on TV in Season 5’s last episode of Inspector George Gently. Interior views of the cathedral were featured in the 2019 superhero film Avengers: Endgame as the indoor location of Asgard.
Architectural historian Dan Cruickshank selected the cathedral as one of his four choices for the 2002 BBC television documentary series Britain’s Best Buildings.
In November 2009 the cathedral featured in the Lumiere festival whose highlight was the “Crown of Light” illumination of the North Front of the cathedral with a 15-minute presentation that told the story of Lindisfarne and the foundation of cathedral, using illustrations and text from the Lindisfarne Gospels. The Lumiere festival was repeated in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017.
In 2017 a new “Open Treasure” exhibition area opened featuring the 8th-century wooden coffin of Saint Cuthbert, his gold and garnet pectoral cross, a portable altar and an ivory comb.
在本世紀初，大教堂東端九座祭壇禮拜堂的兩座祭壇被重新獻給了惠特比的聖希爾德和蘇格蘭的聖瑪格麗特：一幅引人注目的瑪格麗特畫（與她的兒子，未來之王大衛）由Paula Rego於2004年獻身。附近有一塊牌匾，於2011年首次安裝並於2017年重新投入使用，以紀念1650年鄧巴戰役後在大教堂中作為囚犯死亡的蘇格蘭士兵。其中一些囚犯的遺體有現在已經在2013年建築工程期間的一個亂葬坑中被發現，就在Palace Green附近的大教堂區外。
2004年，Fenwick Lawson，Pietà和基督之墓的兩件木製雕塑被放置在Nine Altars教堂，2010年，Tom Denny的一個新的變形彩色玻璃窗專門用於紀念前達勒姆主教Michael Ramsey和坎特伯雷大主教。
2016年，修道院周圍的前修道院建築，包括修道院宿舍和Prior’s Kitchen，作為Open Treasure重新向公眾開放，這是一個展示大教堂歷史和財產的大型展覽。
達勒姆大教堂在哈利波特電影中被描述為霍格沃茨魔法學校，在那裡它有一個尖頂，數字地添加到著名塔樓的頂部。它也在第5季的最後一集Inspector George Gently的電視節目中出現。 2019年超級英雄電影復仇者聯盟：Endgame作為Asgard的室內位置，展示了大教堂的內部景觀。
There is evidence that the aisle of the choir had the earliest ribbed vaults in the country, as was argued by John Bilson, English architect, at the end of the nineteenth century. Since then it has been argued that other buildings like Lessay Abbey provided the early experimental ribs that created the high technical level shown in Durham. Interestingly there is evidence in the clerestory walls of the choir that the high vault had ribs. There is controversy between John James and Malcolm Thurlby on whether these rib vaults were four-part or six-part, which remains unresolved. The building is notable for the ribbed vault of the nave roof, with some of the earliest pointed transverse arches supported on relatively slender composite piers alternated with massive drum columns, and lateral abutments concealed within the triforium over the aisles. These features appear to be precursors of the Gothic architecture of Northern France a few decades later, doubtless due to the Norman stonemasons responsible, although the building is considered Romanesque overall. The skilled use of the pointed arch and ribbed vault made it possible to cover far more elaborate and complicated ground plans than before. Buttressing made it possible to build taller buildings and open up the intervening wall spaces to create larger windows.
Saint Cuthbert’s tomb lies at the east in the Feretory and was once an elaborate monument of cream marble and gold. It remains a place of pilgrimage.
有證據表明，合唱團的過道擁有該國最早的羅紋拱頂，正如十九世紀末英國建築師約翰·比爾森所說的那樣。從那以後，有人認為其他建築物如萊因修道院提供了早期的實驗肋骨，創造了達勒姆所顯示的高技術水平。有趣的是，合唱團的天窗中有證據表明高拱頂有肋骨。 John James和Malcolm Thurlby之間就這些肋骨穹頂是四部分還是六部分存在爭議，這仍然沒有得到解決。該建築物以中殿頂部的肋狀拱頂為特色，其中一些最早的尖頭橫向拱橋支撐在相對細長的複合橋墩上，與巨大的鼓柱交替，側向支座隱藏在過道上的三角形內。幾十年後，這些特徵似乎是法國北部哥特式建築的先驅，無疑是由於諾曼石匠的責任，儘管這座建築被認為是整個羅馬式建築。尖拱和肋拱頂的熟練使用使得可以覆蓋比以前更精細和復雜的地面平面圖。支撐使得建造更高的建築物和打開中間牆壁空間以創造更大的窗戶成為可能。
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