Amiens Cathedral 亞眠大教堂
The Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Amiens (French: Basilique Cathédrale Notre-Dame d’Amiens), or simply Amiens Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic church. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Amiens. It is situated on a slight ridge overlooking the River Somme in Amiens, the administrative capital of the Picardy region of France, some 120 kilometres (75 miles) north of Paris.
Medieval cathedral builders were trying to maximize the internal dimensions in order to reach for the heavens and bring in more light. In that regard, the Amiens cathedral is the tallest complete cathedral in France, its stone-vaulted nave reaching an internal height of 42.30 metres (138.8 ft) (surpassed only by the incomplete Beauvais Cathedral). It also has the greatest interior volume of any French cathedral, estimated at 200,000 cubic metres (260,000 cu yd). The cathedral was built between 1220 and c. 1270 and has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981. Although it has lost most of its original stained glass, Amiens Cathedral is renowned for the quality and quantity of early 13th-century Gothic sculpture in the main west façade and the south transept portal, and a large quantity of polychrome sculpture from later periods inside the building.
Denomination:Roman Catholic Church
Relics held:Alleged head of John the Baptist
Architect(s):Robert of Luzarches
Thomas and Regnault de Cormont
Years built:13th century
Length:145 m (476 ft)
Width:70 m (230 ft)
Nave width:14.60 m (47.9 ft)
Height:42.30 m (138.8 ft)
Other dimensions:Façade: NW
Floor area:7,700 square meters
Number of spires 1
Spire height:112.70 m (369.8 ft)
Bishop(s):Bishop Jean-Luc Bouilleret
Thomas和Regnault de Cormont
The lack of documentation concerning the construction of the Gothic cathedral may be in part the result of fires that destroyed the chapter archives in 1218 and again in 1258—a fire that damaged the cathedral itself. Bishop Evrard de Fouilly initiated work on the cathedral in 1220. Robert de Luzarches was the architect until 1228, and was followed by Thomas de Cormont until 1258. His son, Renaud de Cormont, acted as the architect until 1288. The chronicle of Corbie gives a completion date for the cathedral of 1266. Finishing works continued, however. Its floors are covered with a number of designs, such as the bent cross (to symbolize Jesus’ triumph over death). The labyrinth was installed in 1288. The cathedral contains the alleged head of John the Baptist, a relic brought from Constantinople by Wallon de Sarton as he was returning from the Fourth Crusade.
The construction of the cathedral at this period can be seen as resulting from a coming together of necessity and opportunity. The destruction of earlier buildings by fire, and failed attempts at rebuilding forced the fairly rapid construction of a building that, consequently, has a good deal of artistic unity. The long and relatively peaceful reign of Louis IX of France brought prosperity to the region, based on thriving agriculture and a booming cloth trade, that made the investment possible. The great cathedrals of Reims and Chartres are roughly contemporary.
The original design of the flying buttresses around the choir had them placed too high to counteract the force of the ceiling arch pushing outwards resulting in excessive lateral forces being placed on the vertical columns. The structure was only saved when, centuries later, masons placed a second row of more robust flying buttresses that connected lower down on the outer wall. This fix failed to counteract similar issues with the lower wall which began to develop large cracks around the late Middle Ages. This was solved by another patch by the master mason Pierre Tarisel, that consisted of a wrought iron bar chain being installed around the mezzanine level to resist the forces pushing the stone columns outward. The chain was installed red hot to act as a cinch, tightening as it cooled.
缺乏關於哥特式大教堂建設的文件可能部分是由於火災導致1218年的章節檔案被破壞，1258年再次破壞 – 一場大火損壞了大教堂本身。 1220年，主教埃弗拉德·德福伊開始在大教堂工作。羅伯特·德·魯茲克斯直到1228年才成為建築師，隨後是托馬斯·德科莫特直到1258年。他的兒子Renaud de Cormont在1288年擔任建築師.Corbie編年史給出了1266年大教堂的完工日期。然而，整理工作仍在繼續。它的地板上覆蓋著許多設計，例如彎曲的十字架（象徵著耶穌勝過死亡）。迷宮安裝於1288年。大教堂裡有所謂的施洗約翰的頭部，這是當他從第四次十字軍東征回來時由瓦隆德薩頓從君士坦丁堡帶來的遺物。
The west front of the cathedral, built in a single campaign from 1220 to 1236, shows an unusual degree of artistic unity: its lower tier with three vast deep porches is capped with the gallery of twenty-two over lifesize kings, which stretches across the entire façade beneath the rose window. Above the rose window there is an open arcade, the galerie des sonneurs. Flanking the nave, the two towers were built without close regard to the former design, the south tower being finished in 1366, the north one, reaching higher, in 1406.
The western portals of the cathedral are famous for their elaborate sculpture, featuring a gallery of locally-important saints and large eschatological scenes. Statues of saints in the portal of the cathedral have been identified as including the locally venerated Saints Victoricus and Gentian, Saint Domitius, Saint Ulphia, and Saint Fermin.
The spire over the central crossing was added between 1529 and 1533. The surface area is 7,700 square meters; the largest in France.
The façade in colour
During the process of laser cleaning in the 1990s, it was discovered that the western façade of the cathedral was originally painted in multiple colours. A technique was perfected to determine the exact make-up of the colours as they were applied in the 13th century. Then, in conjunction with the laboratories of EDF and the expertise of the Society Skertzo, elaborate lighting techniques were developed to project these colours directly on the façade with precision, recreating the polychromatic appearance of the 13th century. When projected on the statues around the portals, the result is a stunning display that brings the figures to life. The projected colors are faint to photograph, but a good quality DSLR camera provides excellent results, as shown below.
The full effect of the colour may be best appreciated by direct viewing, with musical accompaniment, which can be done at the Son et lumière shows which are held on Summer evenings, during the Christmas Fair, and over the New Year.
大教堂的西面，建於1220年至1236年的單一運動中，顯示了一種不同尋常的藝術統一：它的下層有三個巨大的深廊，上面有二十二個超過生命的國王的畫廊，橫跨玫瑰窗下方的整個立面。在玫瑰窗上方有一個開放式拱廊，galerie des sonneurs。在兩個塔的側面，兩座塔的建造與前一個設計完全不同，南塔在1366年完工，北塔在1406年達到更高。
大教堂的西部門戶以其精緻的雕塑而聞名，其中包括當地重要的聖人畫廊和大型末世景觀。大教堂門戶中的聖徒雕像已被確定為包括當地受尊敬的Saints Victoricus和Gentian，Saint Domitius，Saint Ulphia和Saint Fermin。
Amiens cathedral contains the largest medieval interior in Western Europe, supported by 126 pillars. Both the nave and the chancel are vast but extremely light, with considerable amounts of stained glass surviving, despite the depredations of war.
The ambulatory surrounding the choir is richly decorated with polychrome sculpture and flanked by numerous chapels. One of the most sumptuous is the Drapers’ chapel. The cloth industry was the most dynamic component of the medieval economy, especially in northern France, and the cloth merchants were keen to display their wealth and civic pride. Another striking chapel is dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury, a 13th-century dedication that complements the cathedral’s own very full list of martyrs.
The interior contains works of art and decoration from every period since the building of the cathedral. There are notably baroque paintings of the 17th century, by artists such as Frans II Francken and Laurent de La Hyre.
合唱團周圍的門廊裝飾華麗，彩色雕塑，兩側有許多小教堂。 其中最奢華的是Drapers的小教堂。 佈業是中世紀經濟中最具活力的組成部分，特別是在法國北部，布料商人熱衷於展示他們的財富和公民自豪感。 另一個引人注目的教堂是獻給坎特伯雷的聖托馬斯，這是一個13世紀的奉獻精神，與大教堂自己的完整烈士名單相得益彰。
內部包含自大教堂建成以來的每個時期的藝術作品和裝飾。 17世紀的特色巴洛克風格畫作由Frans II Francken和Laurent de La Hyre等藝術家創作。
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