Burgos Cathedral 布爾戈斯大教堂

The Cathedral of Saint Mary of Burgos (Spanish: Catedral de Santa María de Burgos) is a Catholic church dedicated to the Virgin Mary located in the Spanish city of Burgos. Its official name is Santa Iglesia Catedral Basílica Metropolitana de Santa María de Burgos. Its construction began in 1221, following French Gothic patterns. It went through major changes in the 15th and 16th centuries: the spires of the main facade, the Chapel of the Constable and dome of the transept, elements of the advanced Gothic which give the temple its unmistakable profile. The last works of importance (the Sacristy or the Chapel of Saint Thecla) were constructed in the 18th century, in which the Gothic portals of the main facade were also modified. The style of the cathedral is the Gothic, although it has several decorative Renaissance and Baroque elements as well. The construction and renovations were made with limestone extracted from the quarrys of the nearby town of Hontoria de la Cantera.

In the cathedral are preserved works of extraordinary artists, such as architects and sculptors of the Colonia family (Juan, Simón and Francisco), the architect Juan de Vallejo, sculptors Gil de Siloé, Felipe Bigarny, Rodrigo de la Haya, Martín de la Haya, Juan de Ancheta and Juan Pascual de Mena, the sculptor and architect Diego de Siloé, the fencer Cristóbal de Andino, the glazier Arnao de Flandes or painters Alonso de Sedano, Mateo Cerezo, Sebastiano del Piombo or Juan Ricci, among others.

The design of the main facade is related to the purest French Gothic style of the great cathedrals of Paris and Reims, while the interior elevation as a reference to Bourges Cathedral. It consists of three bodies topped by two lateral square towers. The squelettes of Germanic influence were added in the 15th century and are the work of Juan de Colonia. In the outside are outstanding also covers del Sarmental and la Coronería, 13th century Gothics, and the cover de la Pellejería of 16th century Plateresques-Renaissance influences.

There are numerous architectural, sculptural and pictorial treasures inside. Highlights include:

The Gothic-Plateresque dome, raised by Juan de Colonia in the 15th century.
The Chapel del Constable, of Isabelline Gothic style, which worked the Colonia family, Diego de Siloé and Felipe Bigarny.
The Spanish-Flemish Gothic altarpiece by Gil de Siloé for the Chapel of Saint Anne.
The stalls of the choir Renaissance Plateresque work by Bigarny.
The late Gothic reliefs of the girola by Bigarny.
Numerous Gothic and Renaissance tombs.
The Renaissance Golden staircase by Diego de Siloé.
The Santísimo Cristo de Burgos, image of great devotional tradition.
The tomb of El Cid and his wife Doña Jimena, his letter of Down payment and his chest.
The Papamoscas, articulated statue that opens his mouth to give the chiming of the hours.
The cathedral was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on October 31, 1984. It is the only Spanish cathedral that has this distinction independently, without being joined to the historic center of a city (as in Salamanca, Santiago de Compostela, Ávila, Córdoba, Toledo, Alcalá de Henares or Cuenca) or in union with other buildings, as in Seville. It is similar in design to Brussels Cathedral.

布爾戈斯聖瑪麗大教堂(西班牙語:Catedral deSantaMaríadeBurgos)是一座天主教教堂,致力於聖母瑪利亞位於西班牙城市布爾戈斯。它的正式名稱是Santa IglesiaCatedralBasílicaMetropolitanadeSantaMaríadeBurgos。它的建造始於1221年,遵循法國哥特式圖案。它經歷了15世紀和16世紀的重大變化:主立面的尖頂,警察的教堂和經典的圓頂,先進的哥特式元素,使寺廟具有明顯的輪廓。最後的重要作品(聖器收藏室或聖禮堂教堂)建於18世紀,主立面的哥特式門戶也經過修改。大教堂的風格是哥特式,雖然它有幾個裝飾文藝復興和巴洛克元素。建築和裝修採用從附近的Hontoria de la Cantera鎮的採石場提取的石灰石進行。

在大教堂裡保存著非凡藝術家的作品,如Colonia家族的建築師和雕塑家(Juan,Simón和Francisco),建築師Juan de Vallejo,雕塑家GildeSiloé,Felipe Bigarny,Rodrigo de la Haya,Martíndela Haya ,Juan de Ancheta和Juan Pascual de Mena,雕塑家和建築師DiegodeSiloé,擊劍手CristóbaldeAndino,鏡片Arnao de Flandes或畫家Alonso de Sedano,Mateo Cerezo,Sebastiano del Piombo或Juan Ricci等。

主立面的設計與巴黎和蘭斯偉大的大教堂最純粹的法國哥特式風格有關,而內部高度則作為布爾日大教堂的參考。它由三個頂部由兩個側面方塔組成的主體組成。 15世紀又增添了日耳曼式的影響,是Juan de Colonia的作品。在外面也很出色,還包括del Sarmental和laCoronería,13世紀的Gothics,以及16世紀Plateresques-Renaissance影響的delaPellejería。


哥特式 – Plateresque圓頂,由Juan de Colonia在15世紀提出。
Isabelline哥特式風格的Chapel del Constable教堂,曾為Colonia家族,DiegodeSiloé和Felipe Bigarny工作。
Renaissance Plateresque合唱團的攤位由Bigarny工作。
SantísimoCristode Burgos,偉大的靈修傳統的形象。
El Cid和他的妻子DoñaJimena的墳墓,他的預付款信和他的胸部。
大教堂於1984年10月31日被聯合國教科文組織宣佈為世界遺產。它是唯一一個獨立區別的西班牙大教堂,沒有加入城市的歷史中心(如薩拉曼卡,聖地亞哥德孔波斯特拉,阿維拉,科爾多瓦) ,托萊多,阿爾卡拉德埃納雷斯或昆卡)或與塞維利亞的其他建築聯合。它的設計與布魯塞爾大教堂相似。

Affiliation:Roman Catholic
Ecclesiastical or organizational status:Metropolitan cathedral
Year consecrated:1260
Location:Burgos, Castile and León, Spain
Geographic coordinates:42°20′26.9″N 3°42′16.1″WCoordinates: 42°20′26.9″N 3°42′16.1″W
Architectural type:Church
Architectural style:Gothic
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official name: Burgos Cathedral
Criteria:ii, iv, vi
Designated:1984 (8th session), modified 2014
Reference no.:316bis
State Party: Spain
Region:Europe and North America
Spanish Property of Cultural Interest
Official name: Catedral de Santa María
April 8, 1885

地理坐標:42°20’26.9“N 3°42’16.1”WCoordinates:42°20’26.9“N 3°42’16.1”W
官方名稱:Catedral deSantaMaría

Exterior building
Facade of Saint Mary
When descending the stairs down to the Plaza de Santa María it can see the western facade of the temple, inspired by the cathedrals of Paris and Reims.

In the lower body opens the Portal of Saint Mary formed by three pointed arches flared sheltering the Royal Door, or of Forgiveness, the central, and of the Assumption and the Immaculate, the sides. This portal was work of the 13th century and, with its iconography dedicated to the Virgin, it was considered the most important sculptural manifestation of Gothic in Castile, but its serious deterioration forced austerely rebuild the side doors, in 1663 by Juan de Pobes, and the central, in Neoclassical style, with lintels vain and triangular pediment, in 1790; in the thympanums of the sides were placed the reliefs of the Conception and the Coronation, sticking out of the hand of Juan de Pobes, and in the spandrels, two doubles side arches that shelter respective statuettes.

The second body of the central street of the facade is work of the 13th century and in it a rosette of Cistercian air is opened, with tracery of six-pointed star, or of Solomon’s seal. In the third body in the same street it opens an elegant gallery marked by respectives spires and several pinnacles, and consists of two large windows with mullions and tracery of three quadrilobed; under the eight arches that form the mullions of both arches are placed the statues of the first eight kings of Castile from Ferdinand I of León “the Magnus” to Ferdinand III of Castile “the Saint”. Crown the street a thin rail-cresting of pointed arches on which stands a statue of the Virgin and Child, accompanied by the legend, alluding to the Mother of Christ, Pulchra es et decora. This shot was made in the mid-15th century by Juan de Colonia.

On the side doors of the first body are raised two almost twins towers of the 13th century and of three bodies, with pilasters decorated with pinnacles and statues at its corners, and with decorated openings pointed on each side of each body: one flared with mullion and tracery of oculus, covered with stained glasses, in the first; two geminates without mullion without tracery, in the second; and two other geminates with mullion and tracery, in the third.

On these towers, to the mid-15th century, Juan de Colonia raised respectives pyramidal needles or spires of octagonal base and of fine fretwork that definitely shaped the silhouette of the Burgalesa cathedral. Its Suevigermanian progeny matches the project of the Cologne Cathedral, which could know the master Juan, while the spires of the German city not were made until the 19th century. The Burgalese spiers were raised with the financial contributions of the bishop Alonso de Cartagena and of his successor at headquarters, Luis de Acuña, whose coats of arms, along with the Castilian-Leonese monarchy, appear in the parapets that connect to the tops of the towers. In these parapets master Juan also had the legend pax vobis and the sculpture of Christ showing the footsteps of his Passion, in one, and the legend ecce agnus dei and a sculpture of Saint John the Bapstist, in the other.

Punctuate the set of the facade two polygonal turrets, decorated with lobed arches, with statues and pinnacles and topped in pyramidal spiers amounting to the start of the spiers; inside host respectives spiral staircases ascending to the clerestory and the vaults of the naves.


在下半身打開聖瑪麗門戶,由三個尖拱形成,庇護皇家門,或寬恕,中央,以及聖母升天和聖母無玷兩側。這個門戶網站是13世紀的作品,它的圖像專用於聖母,它被認為是卡斯蒂利亞最重要的哥特式雕塑表現形式,但它的嚴重惡化迫使1663年Juan de Pobes嚴重重建側門,並且1790年,中央,新古典主義風格,帶有門楣虛榮和三角形山形牆;在兩側的鼓膜上放置了Conception和Coronation的浮雕,從Juan de Pobes的手中伸出,在拱肩中,兩個雙面拱門遮住了各自的小雕像。

立面中央街道的第二個主體是13世紀的作品,其中開有一個西多會的空氣玫瑰花,上面有六角星或所羅門海豹的圖案。在同一條街道的第三個體內,它打開了一個由各自的尖頂和幾個尖峰標記的優雅畫廊,由兩個大窗戶組成,豎框和三個四邊形的窗飾;在形成兩個拱門豎框的八個拱門下,將卡斯蒂利亞的前八位國王的雕像從萊昂的費迪南一世“馬格努斯”放置到卡斯蒂利亞的“聖徒”費迪南德三世。街道上有一個細長的尖頂拱門,上面有一個聖母像的雕像,伴隨著傳說,暗指基督的母親,Pulchra es et decora。這張照片是由Juan de Colonia在15世紀中葉拍攝的。


在這些塔樓上,到了15世紀中葉,胡安·德科洛尼亞(Juan de Colonia)各自提出了金字塔形針或八角形基座的尖頂以及精美的鏤空,這絕對塑造了Burgalesa大教堂的輪廓。它的Suevigermanian後代與科隆大教堂的項目相匹配,科隆大教堂可以認識胡安大師,而德國城市的尖頂直到19世紀才開始製作。 Burgalese尖頂是由Alonso de Cartagena主教及其總部LuisdeAcuña的財政捐款籌集的,他的徽章以及Castilian-Leonese君主制出現在連接到頂部的欄杆上。塔。在這些護欄中,大師胡安還有傳說中的pax vobis和基督的雕塑,在其中一個展示了他的激情的腳步,其中包括傳奇的ecce agnus dei和一個聖約翰巴斯特主義者的雕塑。


Facade and Door of the Sarmental
Less known as Sacramental Door, this door, opened in the southern transept and looking out to the Plaza del Rey San Fernando, which is accessed saving a steep staircase, was built approximately 1230 and 1240. This is one of the best Classicism Gothic sculptural set of the 13th century in Spain. It is dedicated to the archaic theme of Christ in Majesty, but using an innovative plastic.

The central element and artistically most refined is the tympanum, whose execution is attributed to a French artist referred to as the Master of the Beau Dieu of Amiens. What is certain is the influence of the sculpture of the Cathedral of Amiens in the masterly Burgalese door. In this almost triangular space representing to seated Jesus as Pantocrator showing the Book of the Law and, surrounding him, the Four Evangelists, in its case double way represented: iconically, themselves bent over their desks writing the Gospels, and symbolically, by the Tetramorph. Below, separated by a lintel, appears a full Apostolate in a seated pose, attributed to another French artist known as the Master of the Sarmental. The tympanum is surrounded by three archivolts occupying the 24 elders of the Apocalypse, playing or tuning medieval musical instruments, several choirs of angels and an allegory of the Arts. This iconographic set had to be carved by local sculptors led by the French masters.

The door is divided by a mullion in which it appears, covered by a canopy on which effigy the Lamb, which could also be carved by Master of the Sarmental) representing a bishop; is tradition identify the portrayed as D. Mauricio, although it may well be of D. Asterio or Saint Indaletius, first bishop of Almería, martyr and Christianizator of the province of Burgos. In the side jambs are carved six figures, after the rest of the portal, four of which represent Moses, Aaron, Saint Peter and Paul the Apostle; the other two are not easily identifiable.

Although the portal concentrates all the interest, it can not be ignored the rest of the gable, escorting robust buttresses topped with pinnacles. It’s later work, of the late-13th century. Its two upper sections, structured along the lines of the central body of the facade of Saint Mary, are occupied by a rosette and on it a set of open gallery with three arches with soffits openwork with triple quatrefoil and supported by mullions against the looming one statuary interpreted as the Divine Liturgy, which Christ administers the Eucharist flanked by twelve angels cerifers and thurifers.

Currently, tourist visits access the Cathedral by the Door of the Sarmental.

這座門在南部的橫斷面上開放,可以看到聖殿門,可以看到拯救陡峭的樓梯,可以在大約1230年和1240年建成。這是最好的古典主義哥特式雕塑之一。 13世紀在西班牙。它致力於陛下基督的古老主題,但使用創新的塑料。

中心元素和藝術上最精緻的是鼓室,其執行歸功於一位法國藝術家,被稱為Amiens的Beau Dieu大師。可以肯定的是,亞眠大教堂的雕塑在精湛的Burgalese門中的影響。在這個幾乎三角形的空間中,代表坐在耶穌身上的Pantocrator展示了法律之書,並圍繞著他,四位福音傳教士,在它的情​​況下雙重表示:象徵性地,他們自己彎腰在他們的桌子上寫福音書,象徵性地,由Tetramorph 。下面,由門楣分開,出現一個坐姿的完整Apostolate,歸因於另一位法國藝術家,稱為Sarmental的大師。鼓室周圍有三個拱門,佔據著天啟的24位長老,演奏或調整中世紀樂器,幾個天使合唱團和藝術寓言。這幅肖像畫必須由法國大師領導的當地雕塑家雕刻。

門被一個豎框所分隔,它被一個遮蓋著羔羊的樹冠覆蓋,羔羊也可以由代表主教的薩魯特大師雕刻而成;傳統認為被描繪為D. Mauricio,雖然它可能是D. Asterio或Saint Indaletius,阿爾梅里亞的第一任主教,布爾戈斯省的烈士和基督教徒。在側門上雕刻了六個人物,在門戶的其餘部分之後,其中四個代表摩西,亞倫,聖彼得和保羅使徒;另外兩個不易識別。



Facade and Door of the Coronería
In the gable of the north transept, at the height of the calle Fernán González but at a level several meters higher than the floor of the temple, opens the Door of the Coronería, or Door of the Apostles, which from inside the Cathedral communicates with the nave through the Golden Staircase by Diego de Siloé. It is work done between 1250 and 1257 by local artists from the circle of master Enrique, sometimes called master of the Coronería. Fully Gothic, part of the sculptural themes however prolong the Romanesque tradition. In addition, the environment of the door was renovated in the 18th century, in 1786, with a semicircular arch of large voussoirs and of Baroque style, which replaced a Gothic mullion in which would be represented the figure of God the Father. Shortly undertake the remodeling, the Council decided to close this door by the excessive and annoying traffic of neighbors who descended into the lower part of the city with supplies and utensils. Thus ended another movement of people, this pious, since through the Coronería had access to the Cathedral the pilgrims that followed the Camino de Santiago.

Below and above the jambs, and extending through the surrounding wall, forming friezes, blind respectives series of ogival and trefoil pointed arches, that in the lower socket mounted on paired columns with vegetable capitals. This blind gallery of trefoils and columns underlies a complete Apostolate, consisting of statues in the round and almost life-size. Six are shown on each side, attached to the wall and separated by the jambs.

The three archivolts are garrisoned by reliefs of seraphims on the inside, thurifer angels in the middle, and scenes of the resurrection of the deads on the outside. The tympanum, divided into two parts, representing the Last Judgment. On the lintel justly above the door appears a long scene in relief chaired by Archangel Michael with a scale weighing the souls; around him, to the left, a demons trying to unlevel in their favor the weight of the sins as well as those convicted who are driven to Hell, and, to the right, a little house with the open door representing the entrance to paradise, where are already a nobles, a king, a queen, a monk with hood and a Franciscan friar, the blessed. This motif of psicostasis is an iconographic heritage of the Romanesque art. At the top of the tympanum appears another motif common to the Romanesque, the Deesis, with Christ enthroned as universal judge, with arms raised, showing the wounded of the side and flanked by the Virgin and St. John imploring mercy for souls of the poor. At the apex of the tympanum, on a clouds, an angels bearing the insignia of the Passion. The attempts at drama and grimacing expression that show various images of this facade away of the full French classicism and put in relation to a more naturalistic trend of clear Hispanic flavor.

It considers this facade akin to the Judgment of the western facade of the Cathedral of León and the iconographic theme of the cathedrals of Reims and Chartres, although its most obvious reference is the neighbor Door of the Sarmental, whose perfect balance, however, can not achieve.

The facade of the portal of the Coronería extends upwards with a large window of stepped triple bow and on it, needles by respectives marked spires, a gallery of three ogival arches, with mullions and tracery of three quadrilobulates circles. Attached to the mullions are twelve crowned statues alluding to the Castilian royalty and, attached to the spandrels of the arches, thurifer angels. Following seen on the facade of the Sarmental, the gable of the Coronería ends at the top with a handrail formed by arches.

在北部橫斷面的山牆上,在費爾南·岡薩雷斯(FernánGonzález)的高處,但在比寺廟地面高幾米的高度上,打開了從大教堂內部通信的Coronería門或者使徒之門。 DiegodeSiloé穿過Golden Staircase的教堂中殿。 1250年至1257年間,當地藝術家來自Enrique大師圈,有時被稱為Coronería大師。完全哥特式,雕塑主題的一部分,但延長了羅馬式傳統。此外,門的環境在1886年進行了翻新,於1786年,有一個半圓拱形的大型voussoirs和巴洛克風格,取代了一個哥特式的豎框,在其中代表了父神的形象。委員會不久進行改造,決定通過供應和用具下降到城市下游的鄰居的過度和惱人的交通來關閉這扇門。因此結束了另一個人的運動,這個虔誠的,因為通過Coronería可以進入大教堂跟隨Camino de Santiago的朝聖者。






FROM:Burgos, Spain: Cathedral on the Camino

FROM:The cathedral of Burgos drone footage

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