Puerta de Alcalá 阿爾卡拉門
The Puerta de Alcalá is one of the five ancient royal doors that gave access to the city of Madrid (Spain).
It is located in the center of the roundabout of the Plaza de la Independencia. At the junction of the streets of Alcalá, Alfonso XII, Serrano and Salustiano Olózaga, next to the doors of the Retiro: Puerta de España, Puerta de la Independencia (main entrance to the Retiro gardens) and Puerta de Hernani.
The door gave access to those travelers who formerly entered the town from France or Aragon. At present it is a monumental gate that is located next to the Cibeles Fountain and the Retiro Park. It was built by order of Carlos III to replace another previous door that existed since the sixteenth century.The design and work belongs to the Italian architect Francesco Sabatini.Sabatini competed with other projects by Spanish architects: Ventura Rodríguez and José of Hermosilla, being finally chosen personally by the King the design of Sabatini.
It is a door of neoclassical style and monumental aspect similar to the Roman Arches of Triumph, it was erected looking at its exterior to the east in the year 1778. The door has been subsequently restored five times in more than two centuries of existence, being the last at the end of the 20th century. The originality of its factory consists in being the first triumphal arch built in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire, being a precursor to others such as the Arc de Triomphe in Paris and the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin.
Since its inception, it has undergone various urban transformations in its environment, from being the outer border of Madrid to a compulsory tourist center that appears inserted almost in the middle of the same city. This change has been due to the widening of the 19th century along the Serrano neighborhood and the extension of Alcalá street. Finally, since 1976, it has been considered by the Spanish State as a historical-artistic monument, extending its category to the same Plaza de la Independencia.
The door and from its final location was acquiring from the late eighteenth century relevance in the people of Madrid, and at the end of the nineteenth century was one of its most characteristic icons that appears in numerous illustrations of the city. Being one of the most representative monuments, in its double condition of looking into the interior of the city and outside of it. The Puerta de Alcalá has served as a support for all kinds of political and artistic events and in its surroundings there have been numerous historical events.
它位於獨立廣場（Plaza de la Independencia）的環形交叉路口的中心。在馬德里，阿方索十二，塞拉諾和Salustiano Olozaga街道的十字路口，在雷蒂羅之門：西班牙的大門，獨立門（正門麗池花園）和普爾塔Hernani的。
Municipality (s): Madrid
Location: Plaza de la Independencia
Owner: City Council of Madrid.
History of the building / monument
Author: Francesco Sabatini
Francisco Gutiérrez Arribas
Architect (s): Francesco Sabatini
Type: Monumental gate
(Gateway to Madrid)
Neoclassical style (s)
Dimensions: 43,967 m (front), 21,946 m (height)
Protection of the monument
Declaration: Good of Cultural Interest.
Characteristics: Monument of the Enlightenment. Door with three arches decorated with slogans, weapons, flags and cornucopias. It has several sculptures and is topped with the Shield of Spain. First Arc of Triumph of Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire.
特徵：啟蒙紀念碑。 門上有三個拱門裝飾著口號，武器，旗幟和聚寶盆。 它有幾個雕塑，並配有西班牙之盾。 自羅馬帝國滅亡以來的第一個歐洲勝利之弧。
The Door was built by using two types of stone: berroqueña stone masonry for the elements of structural support and on the other hand decorative and ornamental elements were developed in white stone from the quarries of Colmenar de Oreja: angels, shields , weapons, helmets. Specifically of fossiliferous limestones of calcium carbonate characeas of 99% purity. These two constructive elements are very common in the Madrid architecture of the late eighteenth century. On the other hand the covering of the pediments consists of lead plates. The exterior facade faces to the east, while the interior faces to the west. In the intrados of the first arch the General Directorate of the Geographical Institute has placed a plaque indicating that the height above the average level of the Mediterranean in Alicante is 658.6 meters.
門是用兩種類型的石頭建造的：berroqueña石砌體用於結構支撐的元素，另一方面裝飾和裝飾元素是用Colmenar de Oreja採石場的白色石頭開發的：天使，盾牌 ，武器，頭盔。 特別是含有99％純度的碳酸鈣的化石石灰岩。 這兩個建設性元素在十八世紀晚期的馬德里建築中非常普遍。 另一方面，山形牆的覆蓋物由鉛板組成。 外立面朝東，內部朝西。 在第一個拱門的內部，地理研究所總局放置了一塊牌匾，表明高於阿利坎特地中海平均水平的高度為658.6米。
The Puerta de Alcalá develops its architecture in three bodies, the two lateral ones at a lower height than the central one. Between its three bodies are distributed five bays in total: three with a semicircular arch, with keys finished in their voussoirs with masks with lion head shapes (west side or interior) and satyrs (east or outer side), and two sides with lintels arches decorated on them with two pairs of cards with crosses of crossed cornucopias (west or interior side) and floral patterns in the form of garlands (east or outside). These central bays already had, within a few years of their construction, bars that were closed to traffic every day at sunset.Today you can see the bushings on which this trellis was supported and turned. The other exterior openings are intended for pedestrian crossing. In plan the central body excels that of the sides.
The exterior facade, the one facing east, has ten granite columns from Segovia attached. All of them smooth and without stretch marks. In the interior, the one that looks towards the city, the six exteriors are replaced by pilasters and only two pairs next to the central arch are still columns. All of them rest on a plinth. The capitals are of Ionic order and a cornice rests on them. They are of the same design that Michelangelo did for the Capitolio factory in Rome. The models were brought in at the time to adapt them to the design of the Door.
The main artists of the decorations are two: the Spanish sculptor Francisco Gutiérrez (shields and angels from abroad) and the Frenchman Roberto Michel (lions, horns and other interior decorations) Michel was based in Madrid at the service of the Bourbons during of forty years and its apogee coincides with the Carolino reign. Gutierrez and Sabatini were possibly friends since their previous stay in Rome. It is about the two sculptors who worked previously in the Fuente de la Cibeles. This is perhaps the reason why these two sculptors are chosen to the detriment of Felipe de Castro who was the main sculptor of the Villa at that time. It is known that ornamentation began to be carried out in the workshops of the respective carvers in the year 1773 and that in March 1778, in spite of having finished their work, most of the ornamental pieces were not settled on the cornice of the Door .
It should be noted that some scholars of the Puerta de Alcalá mention that, contrary to what is customary in the Roman Arcos de Triunfo, as Chueca Goitia mentions, it is worth noting the absence of the bust of King Carlos III. of some remarkable fact of his reign. Either by Latin inscription or relief engraved on the granitic stone of the Door.
裝飾品的主要藝人有兩個：西班牙雕塑家弗朗西斯·古鐵雷斯（從國外盾牌和天使）和法國人羅伯特·米歇爾（獅子，軍號等室內裝飾品）米歇爾在波旁王朝在附近的基於服務的馬德里。四十年和它的遠地點恰逢卡羅利諾統治時期。自從他們上次在羅馬逗留以來，古鐵雷斯和薩巴蒂尼可能是朋友。這是兩位曾在Fuente de la Cibeles工作的雕塑家。這也許就是為什麼選擇這兩位雕塑家而不利於當時別墅的主要雕塑家費利佩·德卡斯特羅的原因。據了解，紋飾開始於1773年和1778月，執行在各自的雕刻師的車間儘管已經完成了他們的工作，最具有觀賞作品是沒有解決門的窗台。
On the outer inscription there is a real coat of arms held by the Fame (represented without its characteristic trumpet) and the Genius in the form of a child. The trumpet was a very common attribute in fame, an instrument with which the manificience of the King is announced. It is unknown if the trumpet of Fame was in the initial designs, or if it was simply removed later. The shield was visible, therefore to those who entered the city. The group has a similarity with the sculptural group that crowns the tomb of Fernando VI in the Real Salesas of Madrid. On the other side are represented trophies of war, being able to observe ancient weapons interspersed with modern ones. At the foot of the street you can see plumes of helmets or morriones, the banners and disordered banners that are supposed to correspond to an enemy already defeated. These allegorical representations come to indicate the absolute power of the incoming king: Carlos III.
In the interior facade, on the lateral arcs, they appear the four cardinal virtues represented in children’s bodies: Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Strength. It was believed for some time that the figures corresponded to sweeties, in part because these Cardinal Virtues had previously been represented with female figures (as can be seen in the picture of Raphael’s Virtues) .39 The children had been employed usually as decorative elements of the baroque. These allegorical representations refer to the remarkable virtues in Carlos III. All these ornamental motifs were carved in limestone from Colmenar, like cornucopias, by Francisco Gutiérrez Arribas from Ávila, and its more baroque style contrasts with the neoclassical style of the door.
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