Pena Palace in Sintra 辛特拉的佩納宮
The Pena Palace (Portuguese: Palácio da Pena) is a Romanticist castle in São Pedro de Penaferrim, in the municipality of Sintra, on the Portuguese Riviera. The castle stands on the top of a hill in the Sintra Mountains above the town of Sintra, and on a clear day it can be easily seen from Lisbon and much of its metropolitan area. It is a national monument and constitutes one of the major expressions of 19th-century Romanticism in the world. The palace is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the Seven Wonders of Portugal. It is also used for state occasions by the President of the Portuguese Republic and other government officials.
佩納宮（葡萄牙語：PaláciodaPena）是位於葡萄牙里維埃拉辛特拉市SãoPedrode Penaferrim的浪漫主義城堡。 城堡位於辛特拉鎮上方辛特拉山脈的山頂上，在晴朗的日子裡，可以從里斯本及其大部分城市區域輕鬆看到。 它是一座國家紀念碑，是世界19世紀浪漫主義的主要表現形式之一。 宮殿是聯合國教科文組織世界遺產，也是葡萄牙七大奇蹟之一。 它也被葡萄牙共和國總統和其他政府官員用於國家場合。
Architectural style:Romanesque Revival, Neo-Manueline
Construction started:Middle Ages
Design and construction
Architect:Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege
Other designers:Ferdinand II of Portugal
建築師：Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege
The castle’s history started in the Middle Ages when a chapel dedicated to Our Lady of Pena was built on the top of the hill above Sintra. According to tradition, construction occurred after an apparition of the Virgin Mary.
In 1493, King John II, accompanied by his wife Queen Leonor, made a pilgrimage to the site to fulfill a vow. His successor, King Manuel I, was also very fond of this sanctuary, and ordered the construction of a monastery on this site which was donated to the Order of Saint Jerome. For centuries Pena was a small, quiet place for meditation, housing a maximum of eighteen monks.
In the 18th century the monastery was severely damaged by lightning. However, it was the Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755, occurring shortly afterwards, that took the heaviest toll on the monastery, reducing it to ruins. Nonetheless, the chapel (and its works of marble and alabaster attributed to Nicolau Chanterene) escaped without significant damage.
For many decades the ruins remained untouched, but they still astonished young prince Ferdinand. In 1838, as King consort Ferdinand II, he decided to acquire the old monastery, all of the surrounding lands, the nearby Castle of the Moors and a few other estates in the area. King Ferdinand then set out to transform the remains of the monastery into a palace that would serve as a summer residence for the Portuguese royal family. The commission for the Romantic style rebuilding was given to Lieutenant-General and mining engineer Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege. Eschwege, a German amateur architect, was much traveled and likely had knowledge of several castles along the Rhine river. The construction took place between 1842 and 1854, although it was almost completed in 1847: King Ferdinand and Queen Maria II intervened decisively on matters of decoration and symbolism. Among others, the King suggested vault arches, Medieval and Islamic elements be included, and he also designed an ornate window for the main façade (inspired by the chapter house window of the Convent of the Order of Christ in Tomar).
After the death of Ferdinand the palace passed into the possession of his second wife Elisa Hensler, Countess of Edla. The latter then sold the palace to King Luís, who wanted to retrieve it for the royal family, and thereafter the palace was frequently used by the family. In 1889 it was purchased by the Portuguese State, and after the Republican Revolution of 1910 it was classified as a national monument and transformed into a museum. The last queen of Portugal, Queen Amélia, spent her last night at the palace before leaving the country in exile.
The palace quickly drew visitors and became one of Portugal’s most visited monuments. Over time the colors of the red and yellow façades faded, and for many years the palace was visually identified as being entirely gray. By the end of the 20th century the palace was repainted and the original colors restored.
In 1995, the palace and the rest of the Cultural Landscape of Sintra were classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
幾十年來，廢墟仍未受影響，但他們仍然驚訝於年輕的王子費迪南德。 1838年，作為國王的配偶費迪南德二世，他決定收購舊修道院，周圍的所有土地，附近的摩爾人城堡以及該地區的其他一些莊園。隨後，費迪南德國王開始將修道院遺址改造成一座宮殿，作為葡萄牙王室的夏宮。浪漫風格重建委員會授予了中將和採礦工程師Wilhelm Ludwig von Eschwege。德國業餘建築師埃施韋格（Eschwege）旅行很多，可能對萊茵河沿岸的幾座城堡有所了解。建築工程始於1842年至1854年，雖然它在1847年差不多完工：費迪南德國王和瑪麗亞二世女王在裝飾和象徵意義上進行了乾預。其中，國王建議將拱頂拱門，中世紀和伊斯蘭元素包括在內，並且他還為主立面設計了一個華麗的窗戶（靈感來自托馬爾基督修道院的章節窗口）。
在費迪南德去世後，宮殿進入了他的第二任妻子艾麗莎·亨斯勒（Elisa Hensler），埃德拉伯爵夫人。後者將宮殿賣給了路易斯國王，後者想為王室取回宮殿，此后宮殿經常被家人使用。 1889年，它被葡萄牙國家收購，並在1910年共和黨革命後被列為國家紀念碑並轉變為博物館。葡萄牙的最後一位女王，女王阿梅利亞，在離開該國流亡之前，在宮殿度過了她的最後一晚。
The Pena Palace has a profusion of styles much in accordance with the exotic taste of the Romanticism. The intentional mixture of eclectic styles includes the Neo-Gothic, Neo-Manueline, Neo-Islamic and Neo-Renaissance. References to other prominent Portuguese buildings, such as the Belém Tower, are also present.
Almost the entire palace stands on rock in the Sintra Mountains. Structurally, it can be divided in four sections:
the foundations and its enveloping walls, with two gateways (one of which is protected by a drawbridge)
-the restored structure of the old convent, and the clock tower
-the Arches Yard in front of the chapel, with its wall of Moorish arches
-the palatial zone and its cylindric bastion, with interiors decorated in -the cathédrale style.
佩納宮擁有豐富的風格，與浪漫主義的異域風情一致。 折衷主義風格的故意混合包括新哥特式，新曼努埃爾式，新伊斯蘭教和新文藝復興。 還有其他著名的葡萄牙建築物，如貝倫塔（BelémTower）。
Convent section and clock tower
As many elements as possible were preserved of the remains of the Hieronymite convent including the cloister, the dining room, the sacristy, and the Manueline-Renaissance chapel. All were embedded in a new section that featured a wide terrace and a clock tower. The Queen’s Terrace is perhaps the best spot for obtaining an overall picture of the architecture of the palace. The terrace features a sundial cannon that used to fire every day at noon. The clock tower was completed in 1843.
盡可能多的元素保存了Hieronymite修道院的遺體，包括迴廊，餐廳，聖器收藏室和Manueline-Renaissance教堂。 所有這些都嵌入了一個帶有寬露台和鍾樓的新區域。 Queen’s Terrace可能是獲得宮殿建築整體景觀的最佳地點。 露台設有一個日常火砲，每天中午都會開火。 鐘樓於1843年完工。
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