New Slains Castle
Slains Castle, also known as New Slains Castle to distinguish it from nearby Old Slains Castle, is a ruined castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. It overlooks the North Sea from its cliff-top site 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) east of Cruden Bay. The core of the castle is a 16th-century tower house, built by the 9th Earl of Erroll. Significant reconstruction of the castle has been carried out a number of times, lastly in 1837 when it was rebuilt as a Scots Baronial mansion. At one time it had three extensive gardens, but is now a roofless ruin. Plans to restore the castle have been on hold since 2009. It is a Historic Environment Scotland Category B listed building.
Slains城堡，也被稱為新Slains城堡，以區別於附近的Old Slains城堡，是蘇格蘭阿伯丁郡的一座廢墟城堡。 它位於克魯登灣以東1公里（0.62英里）的懸崖頂上，俯瞰著北海。 城堡的核心是一座16世紀的塔樓，由第9伯爵厄羅爾建造。 城堡的重建已經多次進行，最後在1837年重建為蘇格蘭男爵宅邸。 有一次，它有三個廣闊的花園，但現在是一個無屋頂的廢墟。 自2009年以來，恢復城堡的計劃已經暫停。這是一個蘇格蘭歷史環境B類建築。
Coordinates:57°24′55″N 1°49′56″WCoordinates: 57°24′55″N 1°49′56″W
OS grid reference NK 102 361
Built for:Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll
坐標：57°24’55“N 1°49’56”W坐標：57°24’55“N 1°49’56”W
OS網格參考NK 102 361
The Clan Hay were a powerful family in the area for generations, having possessed the lands of Slains since the 14th century. In 1453 Sir William Hay, the clan chief, was made Earl of Erroll by King James II. At this time the local seat of power was Old Slains Castle, near Collieston some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to the south-west. Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll, succeeded in 1585, and converted to Roman Catholicism. He conspired with other Catholic nobles, including the Earl of Huntly, with whom he joined in a brief rebellion in 1589. Erroll was also a signatory of the “Spanish Blanks”, documents signed by members of the Catholic nobility of Scotland, and otherwise left to be filled in with the terms of Spanish aid. Erroll was declared a traitor in 1594, and Old Slains Castle was destroyed in October on the orders of King James VI.
After a period abroad Erroll returned to Scotland, and abjured Roman Catholicism in 1597, subsequently returning to royal favour. He abandoned Old Slains and built a courtyard and square tower on the present site. Originally named Bowness, it later became known as New Slains. The wings around the courtyard were extended in 1664 by addition of a gallery or corridor, and in 1707 the entrance front was renewed.
In 1820 William Hay, 18th Earl of Erroll, married Lady Elizabeth FitzClarence, the illegitimate daughter of King William IV and Dorothea Jordan. In the 1830s the 18th Earl commissioned the Aberdeen architect John Smith to remodel the castle. This resulted in a virtual rebuilding of Slains in a Scots Baronial style, including granite facings, in 1836–1837. Gardens were laid out in the late 1890s by the landscape architect T. H. Mawson. In 1895 the author Bram Stoker visited the area, staying at a cottage near Cruden Bay, and he may have been a guest at Slains. The castle is commonly cited as an inspiration for Stoker’s 1897 novel Dracula.
In 1913 the 20th Earl of Erroll sold New Slains, ending more than 300 years of occupation by the family. It was purchased by Sir John Ellerman, the wealthy but secretive owner of the Ellerman Lines shipping company, who leased it out. In 1925 the roof was removed to avoid taxes, and the building has deteriorated since. It is now a roofless shell, with most of the outer and inner walls standing to full height. In 2004 it was reported that the Slains Partnership was preparing plans for restoration of the building and conversion into 35 holiday apartments. In August 2007 the scheme was granted outline planning permission by Aberdeenshire Council, but the plans were put on hold in 2009 due to the economic downturn.
Clan Hay是該地區幾代人的強大家族，自14世紀以來一直擁有Slains的土地。 1453年，部落首領威廉·海伊爵士被國王詹姆斯二世授予埃羅爾伯爵。此時，當地的權力所在地是位於Collieston附近的Old Slains城堡，位於西南方向約8公里（5.0英里）處。埃羅爾的第9伯爵弗朗西斯·海伊於1585年成功，並皈依羅馬天主教。他與其他天主教貴族密謀，包括亨特伯爵，他於1589年與他一起參加短暫的叛亂。埃羅爾也是“西班牙空白”的簽字人，蘇格蘭天主教貴族成員簽署的文件，否則就離開了填寫西班牙援助條款。埃羅爾在1594年被宣佈為叛徒，10月，根據詹姆士六世的命令，舊斯萊恩斯城堡被摧毀。
在國外經過一段時間後，埃羅爾回到了蘇格蘭，於1597年放棄了羅馬天主教，隨後又回歸皇室。他放棄了Old Slains並在現場建造了一座庭院和方塔。最初名為Bowness，後來被稱為New Slains。庭院周圍的翼樓在1664年通過增設一個走廊或走廊而延伸，並在1707年更新了入口前部。
1820年，18歲的埃爾羅爾伯爵威廉·海伊與伊麗莎白·菲茨克拉倫斯夫人結婚，後者是威廉四世國王和多蘿西婭喬丹的私生女。在1830年代，第18伯爵委託阿伯丁建築師約翰史密斯重建城堡。這導致1836 – 1837年蘇格蘭男爵風格的Slains虛擬重建，包括花崗岩飾面。花園由景觀設計師T. H. Mawson於19世紀90年代後期佈置。 1895年，作者Bram Stoker訪問了該地區，住在Cruden Bay附近的一個小屋，他可能是Slains的客人。這座城堡通常被引用為斯托克1897年小說德古拉的靈感。
1913年，第20屆埃羅爾伯爵賣掉了新奴隸，結束了300多年的家庭佔領。它是由John Ellerman先生購買的，他是Ellerman Lines航運公司的富有而又神秘的老闆，他將其出租。 1925年，屋頂被拆除以避免徵稅，此後建築物已經惡化。它現在是一個無頂殼，大部分外壁和內壁都是全高的。據報導，2004年Slains Partnership正在準備恢復建築和轉換為35個度假公寓的計劃。 2007年8月，該計劃獲得了阿伯丁郡議會的大綱規劃許可，但由於經濟衰退，該計劃於2009年暫停。
New Slains castle is a Historic Environment Scotland Category B listed building. At first inspection the ruin appears to be a blend of several different architectural styles and periods, due to diverse masonry including older mortared granite, mortared medieval red brick, mortared sandstone and newer well faced granite. In fact most of the architecture seems to derive from a rather cohesive interval 1597 to 1664, which construction is the most expansive and includes the mortared rough granite and medieval brick. The 1836 work adds smoother granite facing that contrasts with the older construction style.
The defensive works of the castle include use of the North Sea cliffs; an abyss to the west that functions as a deep impassable moat; and a ruined rampart that would have been the main entrance on the south. The ruins include reasonably well preserved elements of three- and four-storey structural elements and a basement course over some of the range, especially at the eastern side. There are well-preserved basement kitchen works with numerous firepits and masonry indented storage spaces. The internal doorways are primarily of well-preserved wooden lintel construction, with numerous examples of mortared sandstone and medieval brickwork archways. The interior of the ground level is a maze of passageways and smaller rooms, reflecting a high state of occupancy in 17th-century times.
New Slains城堡是蘇格蘭B類建築的歷史環境。在最初的檢查中，廢墟似乎是幾種不同建築風格和時期的混合，由於多樣化的磚石結構，包括較舊的花崗岩，砂漿中世紀紅磚，砂漿砂岩和較新的井面花崗岩。事實上，大多數建築似乎都來自一個相當有凝聚力的區間1597到1664，這種建築是最廣闊的，包括灰泥花崗岩和中世紀磚。 1836年的作品增添了更光滑的花崗岩飾面，與舊的建築風格形成鮮明對比。
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