Tirana Pyramid 地拉那金字塔
The Pyramid of Tirana (Albanian: Piramida) is a structure and former museum located in Tirana, Albania, Europe.
Alternative names:Enver Hoxha Museum
Pjeter Arbnori International Cultural Center
Town or city:Tirana
Opened:14 October 1988
Design and construction
Architect:Pirro Vaso, Klement Kolaneci, Pranvera Hoxha, and Vladimir Bregu
建築師：Pirro Vaso，Klement Kolaneci，Pranvera Hoxha和Vladimir Bregu
On 14 October 1988, the structure opened as the Enver Hoxha Museum, originally serving as a museum about the legacy of Enver Hoxha, the long-time leader of Communist Albania, who had died three years earlier. The structure was co-designed by Hoxha’s daughter Pranvera Hoxha, an architect, and her husband Klement Kolaneci, along with Pirro Vaso and Vladimir Bregu.
When built, the Pyramid was said to be the most expensive individual structure ever constructed in Albania.
The Pyramid has sometimes been sardonically called the “Enver Hoxha Mausoleum”, although this was never its intended use or official appellation.
1988年10月14日，該建築開放為Enver Hoxha博物館，最初是作為一個博物館，講述了三年前去世的共產主義阿爾巴尼亞的長期領導人Enver Hoxha的遺產。 該建築由Hoxha的女兒Pranvera Hoxha（一位建築師）和她的丈夫Klement Kolaneci以及Pirro Vaso和Vladimir Bregu共同設計。
金字塔有時被諷刺地稱為“Enver Hoxha Mausoleum”，儘管這絕不是它的預期用途或官方稱謂。
Indisputably a symbolic landmark of the capital, the Pyramid of Tirana is a relic portraying a turbulent past and an uncertain yet hopeful future. An opinion splitting landmark described in a myriad of ways ranging from magnificent, ugly or just simply rather bizarre. However, its importance for the city of Tirana has never been brought into question. It holds the accolade as the most written about architectural structure in the entirety of Albania. The structure’s controversial past has been recorded by Atlas Obscura and the New York Times, to name but a few, although countless words could be written about its cultural and historical significance for Albania. A significance not too dissimilar to that of the Eiffel Tower or the Statue of Liberty. In the years following Communism, another fate beckoned for the Pyramid, as it was destined to be demolished. Alas, it still stands on the main boulevard of the city but in quite a sorry state. Perhaps the primary reason for its resilience is that it bore witness to the most tumultuous years of Albania’s history and yet it remains a cultural monument whose disappearance would signal more of a loss than a gain for Tirana and the country.
無可爭議地是首都的象徵性地標，地拉那金字塔是一個描繪動盪過去和不確定但充滿希望的未來的遺物。一種意見分裂的地標以無數種方式描述，包括華麗，醜陋或僅僅是奇怪的。然而，它對地拉那市的重要性從未受到質疑。它是阿爾巴尼亞整體建築結構中最具代表性的獎項。阿特拉斯·奧布斯庫拉（Atlas Obscura）和紐約時報（New York Times）記錄了該結構的有爭議的過去，僅舉幾例，儘管可以寫出無數的關於其對阿爾巴尼亞的文化和歷史意義的文字。這個意義與埃菲爾鐵塔或自由女神像的意義並不相同。在共產主義之後的幾年裡，另一個為金字塔招手的命運，因為它注定要被拆除。唉，它仍然矗立在城市的主要大道上，但處於相當令人遺憾的狀態。也許其恢復能力的主要原因在於它見證了阿爾巴尼亞歷史上最動蕩的歲月，但它仍然是一個文化紀念碑，其失踪對地拉那和該國的影響更大。
Currently, the Pyramid and its dilapidated interior but somewhat freshly painted exterior serves as a fitting industrial space for art exhibitions and concerts. Although it was originally intended to be a museum for Enver Hoxha, Albania’s Communist leader during the period of 1944-1985. The construction is not solely monumental, but one whose flexibility has been tested by time. The Pyramid has somehow remained au courant and architecturally-speaking the Pyramid represents the first successful attempt at modern design and construction in the country. Quite the avant-garde object at the time of its construction, the Pyramid was the brainchild of a team including four Albanian architects, Hoxha’s daughter Pranvera Hoxha, her husband Klement Kolaneci, Pirro Vaso and Vladimir Bregu. From planning to construction, the project took a mere three years to complete. The architects took liberties which, during Hoxha’s strict regime, would have been unheard of. One of which was the use of “capitalist” materials imported from the United States. The material was used to attach marble tiles on the façade, tiles that were unfortunately removed during the tumultuous period of 1996-1997. Originally, the Pyramid was topped by a red star, the infamous Communist symbol, which has also now been removed. The Pyramid’s interior was once quite luxurious and multi-functional. The building’s interior floors were designed as mezzanines on different levels, creating an amphitheatre-esque look. The following images, taken from the Pyramid architects’ private collection, reveal the construction in its original state.
目前，金字塔及其破舊的內部，但有點新鮮的外觀作為藝術展覽和音樂會的適合工業空間。雖然它原本打算成為1944年至1985年期間阿爾巴尼亞共產黨領導人Enver Hoxha的博物館。建築不僅僅是巨大的建築，而是靈活性經過時間考驗的建築。金字塔在某種程度上保持了自己的意義，而在建築方面，金字塔代表了該國現代設計和建築的第一次成功嘗試。金字塔是建造時的前衛物品，是包括四名阿爾巴尼亞建築師，Hoxha的女兒Pranvera Hoxha，她的丈夫Klement Kolaneci，Pirro Vaso和Vladimir Bregu在內的團隊的心血結晶。從規劃到建設，該項目僅用了三年時間就完成了。建築師採取了自由，在Hoxha嚴格的製度下，這是聞所未聞的。其中之一是使用從美國進口的“資本主義”材料。這種材料被用來將大理石磚貼在外牆上，這些瓷磚在1996 – 1997年的動盪時期不幸被拆除。最初，金字塔頂部是一顆紅星，這是臭名昭著的共產主義象徵，現在也被刪除了。金字塔的內飾曾經非常豪華和多功能。該建築的內部地板設計為不同層次的夾層，營造出圓形劇場式的外觀。以下圖片取自金字塔建築師的私人收藏品，展示了其原始狀態下的建築。
The most surprising fact about the Pyramid is that the name “pyramid” is actually a misnomer as when carefully inspected, the construction reveals an intricate design, with multiple unexpected facades from all viewpoints. The pyramid-like shape can only be seen from the front, while the back is predominantly vertical. You can see the Albanian national symbol from a bird’s, or eagle-eye view which, as you might know, is a double-headed eagle, the inescapable emblem that also dons the country’s flag. The construction was built to stand the test of time and to harmoniously coexist with the landscape surrounding it. The frontal pyramid was meant to seamlessly blend with Mount Dajti which resides at the back of the structure and on both sides. The Pyramid had to co-exist with other iconic buildings of the capital including Hotel Dajti (currently under renovation) and the Prime Minister’s office.
關於金字塔最令人驚訝的事實是，“金字塔”這個名字實際上是一個誤稱，因為經過仔細檢查，這個結構顯示出錯綜複雜的設計，從所有觀點都有多個意想不到的外觀。 金字塔狀的形狀只能從正面看到，而背部則主要是垂直的。 您可以從鳥類或鷹眼視圖中看到阿爾巴尼亞國家象徵，正如您可能知道的那樣，它是一隻雙頭鷹，也是不可避免的標誌，也是國家的旗幟。 建築經過時間的考驗，與周圍的景觀和諧共存。 正面金字塔旨在與Mount Dajti無縫融合，Dajti位於建築物的背面和兩側。 金字塔必須與首都的其他標誌性建築共存，包括Hotel Dajti（目前正在裝修）和總理辦公室。
The Pyramid initially opened as a museum in 1988, exactly three years after the death of Enver Hoxha, as a posthumous dedication to him. Communism fell shortly after and the Pyramid faced radical changes to its purpose and role in the city of Tirana. Its once-beautiful white marble edifice and reflective surfaces became a mirror to the condition of the city, and perhaps the entire country and neighbouring area. During the last few years of Communism, the steps that lead to the Pyramid and the surrounding green area were used as a social spot by the city’s youth who would take the evening stroll, aptly named xhiro, along the boulevard. In 1991 however, the building became a conference center and its social role slowly faded away. In 1999, the Pyramid took on more of a humanitarian function as NATO set up their headquarters for the duration of the war in Kosovo. In 2001, the primary TV channel (TOP Channel) set up temporary headquarters inside the Pyramid. The Pyramid has played host to nightclubs and cafes, countless protests and public gatherings. A trend emerged in the last 20 years or so as some of Tirana’s youth like to throw caution to the wind and use the slanted sides of the structure as a slide! Demolition was scheduled in 2011 but the move was heavily protested and fortunately, or unfortunately for some residents, the structure still stands. A certain melancholy surrounds this opinion-splitting monument, a ruined remnant of an empire that never was. As people walk past the Pyramid on daily commutes to work it is still revered as a representation of a history not to be ignored or forgotten. And you too will face its remarkable story and poignant presence during your stay in Tirana, it truly is a must-see in the city.
金字塔最初於1988年開放，作為一個博物館，恰好在Enver Hoxha去世三年後，作為對他的遺腹奉獻。不久之後共產主義下降，金字塔在地拉那市面臨著其目的和作用的根本變化。它曾經美麗的白色大理石建築和反光錶面成為了城市，也許是整個國家和周邊地區的一面鏡子。在共產主義的最後幾年裡，通往金字塔和周圍綠地的步驟被城市的年輕人用作社交場所，他們將沿著林蔭大道進行晚間漫步，恰如其分地命名為xhiro。然而，在1991年，該建築成為一個會議中心，其社會角色逐漸消失。 1999年，隨著北約在科索沃戰爭期間設立總部，金字塔承擔了更多的人道主義職能。 2001年，主要電視頻道（TOP頻道）在金字塔內設立了臨時總部。金字塔主辦了夜總會和咖啡館，無數的抗議活動和公眾集會。在過去的20年左右出現了一種趨勢，因為地拉那的一些年輕人喜歡謹慎對待風，並將結構的傾斜側面用作滑道！拆遷計劃於2011年進行，但此舉得到了很大的抗議，幸運的是，或者不幸的是，對於一些居民來說，這個結構仍然存在。這個意見分裂的紀念碑周圍有一種憂鬱，這是一個永遠不會被毀滅的帝國遺跡。當人們每天上下班途中經過金字塔時，它仍然被視為一種不容忽視或遺忘的歷史。在地拉那逗留期間，您也將面對其非凡的故事和淒美的存在，這真的是這個城市必看的景點。
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