Matsumoto Castle 松本城
Matsumoto Castle (松本城 Matsumoto-jō) is one of Japan’s premier historic castles, along with Himeji Castle and Kumamoto Castle. The building is also known as the “Crow Castle” (烏城 Karasu-jō) due to its black exterior. It was the seat of the Matsumoto domain. It is located in the city of Matsumoto, in Nagano Prefecture and is within easy reach of Tokyo by road or rail.
The keep (tenshukaku), which was completed in the late sixteenth century, maintains its original wooden interiors and external stonework. It is listed as a National Treasure of Japan.
Matsumoto Castle is a flatland castle (hirajiro) because it is not built on a hilltop or amid rivers, but on a plain. Its complete defences would have included an extensive system of inter-connecting walls, moats, and gatehouses.
Matsumoto Castle（松本城松本莊）是日本首屈一指的歷史城堡之一，還有姬路城和熊本城。 由於其黑色的外觀，該建築也被稱為“烏鴉城堡”（烏城卡拉蘇jō）。 它是松本域的所在地。 它位於長野縣松本市，乘公路或鐵路可輕鬆抵達東京。
Coordinates:36°14′20″N 137°58′09″ECoordinates: 36°14′20″N 137°58′09″E
Type:Hirashiro (flatland castle)
Condition:Original keep (tenshu) and inner walls survive, several gates have been rebuilt since 1960
Built:Current structures date from 1594
Built by:Shimadachi Sadanaga
In use:1504 to 1868
Materials:Earth, stone, and wood
Demolished:Outer castle was taken down and the land reclaimed in the Meiji Restoration
坐標：36°14’20“N 137°58’09”ECoordinates：36°14’20“N 137°58’09”E
The castle’s origins go back to the Sengoku period. At that time Shimadachi Sadanaga of the Ogasawara clan built a fort on this site in 1504, which originally was called Fukashi Castle. In 1550 it came under the rule of the Takeda clan and then Tokugawa Ieyasu.
When Toyotomi Hideyoshi transferred Ieyasu to the Kantō region, he placed Ishikawa Kazumasa in charge of Matsumoto. Kazumasa and his son Yasunaga built the tower and other parts of the castle, including the three towers: the keep and the small tower in the northwest, both begun in 1590, and the Watari Tower; the residence; the drum gate; the black gate, the Tsukimi Yagura, the moat, the innermost bailey, the second bailey, the third bailey, and the sub-floors in the castle, much as they are today. They also were instrumental in laying out the castle town and its infrastructure. It is believed much of the castle was completed by 1593–94.
During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate established the Matsumoto Domain, of which the Matsudaira, Mizuno, and others were the daimyōs.
For the next 280 years until the abolition of the feudal system in the Meiji Restoration, the castle was ruled by the 23 lords of Matsumoto representing six different daimyō families. In this period the stronghold was also known as Crow Castle (烏城 Karasu-jo) because its black walls and roofs looked like spreading wings.
當Toyotomi Hideyoshi將Ieyasu轉移到Kantō地區時，他讓Ishikawa Kazumasa負責松本。 Kazumasa和他的兒子Yasunaga建造了塔樓和城堡的其他部分，包括三座塔樓：西北部的保持和小塔，始於1590年，和Watari塔;住所;鼓門;黑色的大門，Tsukimi Yagura，護城河，最裡面的貝利，第二個貝利，第三個貝利，以及城堡中的地板，就像今天一樣。他們還在佈置城堡城鎮及其基礎設施方面發揮了重要作用。據信大部分城堡都是在1593年至1994年間完成的。
Matsumoto Castle is a National Treasure designated castle standing on the plains of Matsumoto City, in central Nagano Prefecture. Being a hira-jiro, a castle built on the plains, Matsumoto required an extensive system of moats, stone and earthen walls, and gatehouses for defense.
The site had been used as a fortress from around 1504 by the Ogasawara clan before being taken first by Takeda Shingen in 1550, and later by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who awarded it to Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu re-installed the Ogasawara clan, with Ogasawara Sadayoshi in command. Sadayoshi named the area Matsumoto before Tokugawa Ieyasu replaced him with the trusted Tokugawa general, Ishikawa Kazumasa.
From 1590, Kazumasa rebuilt and expanded the castle, but died two years later in 1592. His son, Yasunaga, also known as Gemba, completed the work in 1594, including the current remaining five-story black lacquered wooden clad tower.
Of interest is the difference in construction, particularly inside of the smaller tower, the Ko-tenshu, and the Tenshu main tower. The upright pillars inside the older ko-tenshu are rounded, while the main tenshu has square shaped supports, having been built at different times. The main and sub-keep towers are connected by fortified watari-yagura corridors. The Tenshu and Ko-tenshu both feature the so-called ishi-otoshi rock dropping hatches on the corners, indicating its war-time construction. The southeastern corner features an open plan yagura known as the Tsukimi Yagura, or Moon-Viewing yagura. As its name suggests, it was built for moon viewing parties and has little defensive value, alluding to its peace-time construction. This was added 1634, 40 years after the completion of the main keep by Tokugawa Ieyasu’s grandson, the then lord, Matsudaira Naomasa for his cousin, the third Shogun Iemitsu’s planned visit. The elegant pavilion was completed on time, however the shogun was suddenly forced to cancel his trip, and never got to see the extension, nor enjoyed a moon viewing party there.
It is said that the moon can be seen three times during a moon viewing party in the Tsukimi-Yagura, once in the sky, once reflected in the moat, and the third being a reflection in your sake cup. Drink enough sake and you may well see more.
該遺址在1505年左右被小笠原家族用作堡壘，然後在1550年由武田信玄首先拍攝，後來被豐臣秀吉授予德川家康。 Ieyasu重新安裝了小笠原氏族，並與Ogasawara Sadayoshi一起指揮。在Tokugawa Ieyasu用可靠的德川將軍Ishikawa Kazumasa取代他之前，Sadayoshi將該地區命名為Matsumoto。
令人感興趣的是建築的差異，特別是在較小的塔樓，Ko-tenshu和Tenshu主塔內部。較舊的ko-tenshu內部的直立柱是圓形的，而主要的tenshu有方形支撐，在不同的時間建造。主要和次要保持塔由強化的watari-yagura走廊連接。 Tenshu和Ko-tenshu在角落都有所謂的ishi-otoshi岩石下降艙口，表明它的戰時構造。東南角有一個開放式的Yagura，名為Tsukimi Yagura，或Moon-Viewing yagura。顧名思義，它是為月球觀賞派對建造的，幾乎沒有防禦價值，暗指它的和平時期建築。在德川家康的孫子，當時的領主Matsudaira Naomasa為他的堂兄，第三次Shogun Iemitsu的計劃訪問完成主要保留40年後，這又增加了1634年。優雅的亭子按時完工，但幕府將軍突然被迫取消他的旅行，從未看到延伸，也沒有享受那裡的月亮觀賞派對。
The main complex is in fact five separate National Treasures in one. The main keep, the ko-tenshu, the two adjoining corridors and the Tsukimi-Yagura are all separate National Treasures.
The outer walls of the tenshu complex are covered in black lacquered shitami-itabari cladding, protecting the mud walls within, giving it a strong, somber appearance, particularly against the backdrop of the winter snow capped northern alps.
In 1872 following the collapse of the feudal system and the start of the Meiji Restoration, Matsumoto Castle, like most castles across Japan, was scheduled for demolition and sold at auction. Many citizens against the demolition formed a group to save the castle, successfully preserving it for future generations to enjoy. In the mid Meiji period, the castle developed a lean, and again civic groups rallied to repair the tower keep. The castle was designated as a National Treasure in 1952, and recent improvement works have seen the reconstruction of a number of gates and walls.
On the corner of the Taiko Yagura Mon Gate and current entrance to National Treasure listed Matsumoto Castle is a large, rectangular upright rock, about 2 and a half meters high, and weighing an estimated 22.5 tons. It is known as the Genba Stone, after the samurai lord, Ishikawa Genba, who had been tasked with the redevelopment and expansion of the castle in 1590.
Exceptionally large rocks are often used at the gates and entranceways of castles as a display of power and financial strength. Anyone able to have such a large rock must also have a large and well-equipped army, and therefore was someone to be reckoned with.
The story goes that when the rock was being moved into place, lord Ishikawa Gemba himself stood atop the great rock directing the laborers as it was being pulled into position. It was then he overheard some of the workers complaining that the rock was too big and heavy to be placed. Within seconds, the head of the main complainer was rolling in the dust. Spears were then thrust into the neck cavity, and the head hoisted up for public display. Climbing back onto the rock, Gemba ordered the laborers to pull, and pull they did! The huge rock was very quickly, and very quietly, moved into position.
在Taiko Yagura Mon Gate的拐角處，目前入住國寶的松本城堡是一塊巨大的長方形直立岩石，高約2.5米，重約22.5噸。它被稱為Genba Stone，在武士領主Ishikawa Genba之後，他的任務是在1590年重建和擴建城堡。
Matsumoto Castle is a stunning example of Sengoku period castle architecture, and one of only five castles designated as National Treasure. Matsumoto Castle is also known as Karasu-Jo, or Crow Castle due its black walled main tower and adjoining towers looking like a crow spreading its wings. It is off the standard tourist path, but not too far, as the Crow flies.
松本城是戰國時期城堡建築的絕佳典範，也是僅有的五座被指定為國寶的城堡之一。 松本城也被稱為卡拉蘇喬（Karasu-Jo），或稱烏鴉城堡（Crow Castle），因為它的黑色主塔和相鄰的塔樓看起來像一隻展開翅膀的烏鴉。 它離開標準的旅遊路徑，但不會太遠，因為烏鴉飛了。
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