Flinders Street railway station 弗林德斯街火車站
Flinders Street railway station is a railway station on the corner of Flinders and Swanston Streets in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It serves the entire metropolitan rail network. Backing onto the city reach of the Yarra River in the heart of the city, the complex covers two whole city blocks and extends from Swanston Street to Queen Street.
Flinders Street is served by Metro’s suburban services, and V/Line regional services to Gippsland. It is the busiest station on Melbourne’s metropolitan network and the busiest railway station in Australia, with over 92,600 daily entries per weekday recorded in the 2011/12 fiscal year. It was the first railway station in an Australian city and the world’s busiest passenger station in the late 1920s.
The main station building, completed in 1909, is a cultural icon of Melbourne, the art noveau style building with its prominent dome, arched entrance, tower and clocks–one of the city’s most recognisable landmarks. It is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register. The Melburnian saying “I’ll meet you under the clocks” refers to the row of clocks above the main entrance, which indicate the time-tabled time of departure for trains on each line; another saying, “I’ll meet you on the steps”, refers to the wide staircase underneath these clocks. Flinders Street Station is responsible for two of Melbourne’s busiest pedestrian crossings, both across Flinders Street, including one of Melbourne’s few pedestrian scrambles.
弗林德斯街火車站是位於澳大利亞維多利亞州墨爾本弗林德斯和斯旺斯頓街拐角處的火車站。它服務於整個大都市鐵路網絡。該建築群背靠城市中心的亞拉河（Yarra River）的城市範圍，覆蓋整個城市街區，從斯旺斯頓街（Swanston Street）延伸至皇后街（Queen Street）。
弗林德斯街（Flinders Street）提供地鐵的郊區服務以及前往吉普斯蘭（Gippsland）的V / Line區域服務。它是墨爾本大都市網絡中最繁忙的車站，也是澳大利亞最繁忙的火車站，2011/12財年每個工作日的每日記錄超過92,600次。這是20世紀20年代末澳大利亞城市的第一個火車站和世界上最繁忙的客運站。
主站建於1909年，是墨爾本的文化標誌，這是一座藝術新風格建築，擁有突出的圓頂，拱形入口，塔樓和鍾表 – 這座城市最知名的地標之一。它被列入維多利亞遺產登記冊。墨爾本人說“我會在時鐘下遇見你”是指主入口上方的一排時鐘，表示每條列車上的時間表出發時間;另一種說法，“我會在台階上遇到你”，指的是這些鐘錶下方的寬闊樓梯。弗林德斯街站負責墨爾本最繁忙的兩條人行橫道，兩條橫跨弗林德斯街，其中包括墨爾本少數幾個行人專用區。
Location:207–361 Flinders Street
Melbourne, Victoria 3000
Coordinates:37°49′05″S 144°58′01″ECoordinates: 37°49′05″S 144°58′01″E
Operated by:Metro Trains
Alamein(weekday peaks only)
Flemington Racecourse (special events only)
Williamstown (weekdays only)
Distance:1.23 kilometres from Southern Cross
Platforms:13 (plus one removed)
Connections:14 tram routes
Website: Public Transport Victoria
Opened: 12 September 1854
Electrified:1500 V DC overhead
Passengers (2008–2009) 24.641 million
Passengers (2009–2010) 24.670 million Increase 0.12%
Passengers (2010–2011) 25.187 million Increase 2.09%
Passengers (2011–2012) 26.187 million Increase 3.97%
Passengers (2012–2013) Not measured
Passengers (2013–2014) 27.960 million Increase 6.77%
Victorian Heritage Register
Official name:Flinders Street Railway Station Complex
Criteria:A, E, F, G
Designated:20 August 1982
坐標：37°49’05“S 144°58’01”ECoordinates：37°49’05“S 144°58’01”E
距離：Southern Cross 1.23公里
帶電：1500 V DC開銷
The first railway station to occupy the Flinders Street site was called Melbourne Terminus, and was a collection of weatherboard train sheds. It was opened on 12 September 1854 by the Lieutenant-Governor, Charles Hotham. The terminus was the first city railway station in Australia, and the opening day saw the first steam train trip in the country. It travelled to Sandridge (now Port Melbourne), over the now redeveloped Sandridge Bridge, travelling along the now light rail Port Melbourne line.
The first terminus had a single platform 30 metres long, and was located beside the Fish Market building on the south-west corner of Swanston and Flinders Streets. An additional platform was provided in 1877, along with two overhead bridges to provide passenger access, followed by additional timber and corrugated iron buildings and a telegraph station in 1879. The first signal boxes were opened at the station in 1883, one at each end of the platforms. By the 1890s a third island platform had been constructed.
Melbourne’s two other early central-city stations, Spencer Street and Princes Bridge, opened in 1859. Spencer Street served the lines to the west of the city, and was isolated from the eastern side of the network until a ground level railway was built connecting it to Flinders Street in 1879, this track being replaced by the Flinders Street Viaduct in 1889.
Princes Bridge was originally separated from Flinders Street, even though it was only on the opposite side of Swanston Street. Once the railway line was extended under the street in 1865 to join the two, Princes Bridge was closed. It was not reopened until April 1879, and from 1909 slowly became amalgamated into Flinders Street. Federation Square now occupies its site. Up until the 1880s a number of designs for a new station had been prepared, but none ever went any further.
墨爾本另外兩個早期的中心城市車站，斯賓塞街和王子橋，於1859年開通。斯賓塞街服務於城市西部的線路，並與網絡的東側隔離，直到建成連接它的地面鐵路1879年，這條賽道被弗林德斯街高架橋（Flinders Street Viaduct）取代，於1879年進入弗林德斯街（Flinders Street）。
Track 6 at Flinders Street Station
In 1882, the government decided to build a new central passenger station to replace the existing ad-hoc station buildings. A design competition was finally held in 1899, and 17 entries were received. The competition was essentially for the detailed design of the station building, because the location of the concourse and entrances, the track and platform layout, the type of platform roofing, and even the room layout to some extent, were already decided.
In 1899, the £500 first prize was awarded to railway employees James Fawcett and H.P.C. Ashworth, of Fawcett and Ashworth, whose design, named Green Light, was of French Renaissance style. It included a large dome over the main entrance, and tall clock tower over the Elizabeth Street entrance. A train shed over the platforms was intended to have many arched roofs running north-south, but only an alternative plan survives, depicting an impressive three-arched roof (running east-west) over the concourse.
Flinders Street Station and the intersection of Flinders & Swanston Streets in 1927
Work began in 1900 on the rearrangement of the station tracks, while the final design of the station building was still being worked on. Work on the central pedestrian subway started in 1901, with the foundations of the main building completed by 1903.
In 1904, in mid construction, the plans were extensively modified by the Railways Commissioners. The proposed train shed was replaced by individual platform roofs, and it was decided not to include a concourse roof. To increase office space, a fourth storey was added to the main building, which resulted in the arches above each entrance on Flinders Street being lowered, decreasing their dominance.
By 1907, the station had eleven platforms but, in 1909, the decision was made to construct platforms 12 and 13 east of Swanston Street. In the same year, platform 1 was extended eastwards to cater for country passenger traffic.One of the original platform verandas from the old station was dismantled and re-erected at Hawthorn station, in the inner-eastern suburbs.
In 1905, work began on the station building itself, starting at the west end and progressing towards the main dome. Ballarat builder Peter Rodger was awarded the £93,000 contract. The building was originally to have been faced in stone, but that was considered too costly, so red brick, with cement render details, was used for the main building instead. Grey granite from Harcourt was used for many details at ground level on the Flinders street side, “in view of the importance of this great public work”. The southern facade of the main building consisted of a lightweight timber frame clad with zinc sheets, which were scored into blocks and painted red in order to look like large bricks. That was done to created corridors instead of what were to be open-access balconies inside the train shed.
Flinders Street Station in 1908 during construction of the current station building
Flinders Street Station illuminated for the 1954 Royal Visit
Work on the dome started in 1906. The structure required heavy foundations as it extended over railway tracks. In May 1908, work was progressing more slowly than planned, with the expected completion date of April 1909 increasingly unlikely to be met. Rodger’s contract was terminated in August 1908. A Royal Commission was appointed in May 1910, finding that Rodger could be held accountable for the slow progress in 1908, but he should be compensated for the difficulties before then. The Way and Works Branch of the Victorian Railways took over the project, and the station was essentially finished by mid-1909. The verandah along Flinders Street, and the concourse roof and verandah along Swanston Street, were not completed until after the official opening in 1910.
1899年，500英鎊的一等獎被授予鐵路員工James Fawcett和H.P.C. Fawcett和Ashworth的Ashworth，其設計名為Green Light，具有法國文藝復興風格。它包括主入口處的大圓頂和伊麗莎白街入口處的高塔。在平台上鋪設的火車意圖有許多拱形屋頂向南北延伸，但只有另一個計劃倖存下來，描繪了一個令人印象深刻的三拱形屋頂（東西走向）在廣場上。
圓頂上的工作始於1906年。該結構需要厚重的基礎，因為它延伸到鐵路軌道上。 1908年5月，工作進度比計劃進展緩慢，預計1909年4月的完工日期不太可能實現。羅傑的合同於1908年8月終止。皇家委員會於1910年5月被任命，發現羅傑可能要對1908年的緩慢進展負責，但他應該在此之前得到補償。維多利亞鐵路的Way and Works分部接管了該項目，該站基本上在1909年中期完工。弗林德斯街沿線的走廊，以及斯旺斯頓街上的大廳屋頂和走廊，直到1910年正式開放後才完工。
Plans arose at various times from the 1960s to the 1970s for the demolition or redevelopment of the station, as well as the adjacent Jolimont Yard area. The station had fallen into disrepair, having not been cleaned in decades, and covered with advertising hoardings and light up signs.
In 1962 the Minister for Transport and HKJ Pty Ltd signed an agreement for a £30 million redevelopment of the station that would have resulted in the demolition of the clock tower and replacement with an office building up to 60 stories high. Work was to begin in 1964, but instead the Gas & Fuel Building was constructed over the Princes Bridge station. In 1967 a company purchased the option to lease the space above Flinders Street Station, planning to build a shopping plaza and two office towers, the dome and clock tower being kept as part of the design, but strong opposition saw this project lapse.
In 1972 Victorian Premier Henry Bolte unveiled another redevelopment plan, to cover 27 acres (110,000 m2) of space above the Flinders Street Station and Jolimont Yard for a complex of shops, offices, theatres and other community facilities. A newspaper report of 1974 said that planning was still underway for the $250 million proposal, but by 1975 public perceptions had begun to turn towards retention of the station.
In 1989 under the John Cain Government an agreement to construct the “Festival Marketplace” was signed. Designed by Daryl Jackson architects, it was to be built over the existing platforms in a style sympathetic to the existing station, and be completed by 1992. Planned to feature shops, restaurants and cafes, the project was abandoned in 1991 after the inability of the financiers to come up with the $205 million required due to the early 1990s recession.
In November 2011, the Victorian Government launched a $1 million international design competition to rejuvenate and restore the station. In October 2012, after receiving 118 submissions, six finalists were selected. The public could vote and the jury’s choice and people’s choice winner were announced on 8 August 2013. The competition winner was Hassell + Herzog & de Meuron, while the people’s choice winner were University of Melbourne students Eduardo Velasquez, Manuel Pineda and Santiago Medina.
1962年，運輸部長和HKJ Pty有限公司簽署了一項協議，要求對該車站進行3000萬英鎊的重建，這將導致拆除鐘樓並更換高達60層的辦公樓。工作將於1964年開始，但氣體和燃料大樓建在Princes Bridge車站上。 1967年，一家公司購買了租賃弗林德斯街車站上方空間的選項，計劃建造一個購物廣場和兩座辦公大樓，圓頂和鍾樓作為設計的一部分保留，但強烈反對看到這個項目失效。
1972年，維多利亞州總理亨利·博爾特公佈了另一項重建計劃，覆蓋弗林德斯街車站和Jolimont Yard上方27英畝（110,000平方米）的空間，用於商店，辦公室，劇院和其他社區設施。 1974年的一份報紙報導稱，這項2.5億美元的提案仍在進行規劃，但到1975年，公眾的看法已經開始轉向保留該站。
2011年11月，維多利亞州政府啟動了一項100萬美元的國際設計競賽，以振興和恢復該站。 2012年10月，在收到118份提交材料後，選出了6名入圍者。公眾可以投票，陪審團的選擇和人民的選擇獲勝者於2013年8月8日宣布。比賽獲勝者是Hassell + Herzog＆de Meuron，而人民的選擇獲勝者是墨爾本大學的學生Eduardo Velasquez，Manuel Pineda和Santiago Medina。
The Swanston Street concourse has undergone the most change of any part of the station, and is now three times the depth of the original structure, and only the canopy and roofed area on Swanston Street remains of the original. After the first round of works in 1985 a City of Melbourne councillor, Trevor Huggard, described the renovation as “vandalism of historically important sections of the station”, and in 1997 the National Trust of Australia described the additions to the concourse as unsympathetic and detrimental to the station, having “the character of a modern shopping centre”.
In 1982 a $7 million refurbishment was announced by the Ministry of Transport, divided into four phases. Completed by 1984, the first escalators at the station provided to platforms 2 and 3 replacing the former ramps, and the current public toilets were provided, replacing those over the platforms. New ramps were also provided to platforms which were less steep than those previous, and overhead skylights added to provide better lighting. The television displays used to display next train information had been added to each platform in July 1980. The main station concourse was tiled and extended westward over the tracks, 16 new shops opened on the concourse, and a restaurant was opened on the southern side along the river. The restaurant opened in October 1985 but closed soon after, the site becoming the “Clocks on Flinders” poker machine venue in 1994. The main steps were embedded with electrical circuits to keep them dry in June 1985.
In 1993 the Elizabeth Street pedestrian subway opened at the Southbank end. Conservation work was also carried out to the main building, with the external facade painted in the original colours, exterior feature lighting installed, and the stained glass feature windows above each entry restored. Further changes were made though the late 1990s with the opening of access from the main Swanston Street concourse to platform 1, platform resurfacing with tactile tiles, and the replacement of the remainder of the main platform access ramps with escalators and elevators.
The tracks to the east of the station were rebuilt in 1997/98 to clear the way for the Federation Square project. Jolimont Yard was eliminated, with $40 million spent to reduce 53 operating lines between Flinders Street and Richmond Station to just 12. The number of points was also reduced, from 164 to 48. These changes also saw a reallocation of platform usage at the station, country trains being shifted from platform 1 to platform 10, and Clifton Hill group trains being shifted from Princes Bridge Station to platform 1. The platforms at the station had been renumbered in conjunction with the formal merger of Princes Bridge with Flinders Street on 29 June 1980.
The final round of changes were completed by 2007. It included refurbishment of the building roof and concourse foundations, an upgrade of platform 10 with escalators and a lift replacing the ramp, the relocation of all ticket booking offices to the main entrance under the main dome and new LCD Passenger Information Displays installed on the platforms, subways and concourse. In March 2009 an escalator replaced the lift to platform 12 and 13, with platform 13 also extended westwards into daylight along the alignment of the former platform 11.
In 2008 the retail pavilions on the concourse were rebuilt, increasing their area. An investigation of the potential of the abandoned spaces in the station, overseen by a taskforce comprising representatives from Connex, the Committee for Melbourne, Melbourne City Council, Heritage Victoria, was completed the same year, but the conclusions have not been made public. In January 2010, one of the first announcements by the new Minister for Public Transport was that the government was investigating the refurbishment of the abandoned spaces for “cultural uses”.
In mid-February 2015 Premier Daniel Andrews and Minister for Public Transport Jacinta Allan announced that $100 million would be spent for urgent refurbishment works to upgrade station platforms, entrances, toilets and information displays. By July 2017, the station had been almost completely repainted in the original 1910 colours. The Premier announced that works were likely to continue for another 18 months.
As painting continued in January 2018, a further round of works was announced including the renewal of the Elizabeth Street pedestrian subway and rebuilding of the subway’s south entrance to include direct access to platform 10.
車站東側的軌道於1997/98年重建，以便為聯邦廣場項目掃清障礙。 Jolimont Yard被淘汰，花費了4000萬美元用於減少弗林德斯街和里士滿站之間的53條運營線路，直至12條點。點數也從164減少到48點。這些變化也在車站重新分配平台使用情況，國家列車從平台1轉移到平台10，克利夫頓山集團列車從王子橋站轉移到平台1.車站的平台已經重新編號，與Princes Bridge與弗林德斯街於1980年6月29日正式合併。
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