Winchester Mystery House 溫徹斯特神秘屋
The Winchester Mystery House is a mansion in San Jose, California, that was once the personal residence of Sarah Winchester, the widow of firearm magnate William Wirt Winchester. Located at 525 South Winchester Blvd. in San Jose, the Queen Anne Style Victorian mansion is renowned for its size, its architectural curiosities, and its lack of any master building plan. It is a designated California historical landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is privately owned and serves as a tourist attraction.
Since its construction in 1884, the property and mansion were claimed by many to be haunted by the ghosts of those killed with Winchester rifles. Under Winchester’s day-to-day guidance, its “from-the-ground-up” construction proceeded around the clock, by some accounts, without interruption, until her death on September 5, 1922, at which time work immediately ceased. Sarah Winchester’s biographer, however, says that Winchester “routinely dismissed workers for months at a time ‘to take such rest as I might'” and notes that “this flies in the face of claims by today’s Mystery House proprietors that work at the ranch was ceaseless for thirty-eight years.”
Location:525 South Winchester Boulevard San Jose, CA 95128
Coordinates:37°19′6.10″N 121°57′2.74″WCoordinates: 37°19′6.10″N 121°57′2.74″W
Built:1884-1922 architecture= Queen Anne Style Late Victorian
地點：525 South Winchester Boulevard San Jose，CA 95128
坐標：37°19’6.10“N 121°57’2.74”WCoordinates：37°19’6.10“N 121°57’2.74”W
After her husband’s death from tuberculosis in 1881, Sarah Winchester inherited more than $20.5 million (equivalent to $532 million in 2018). She also received nearly fifty percent ownership of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, giving her an income of roughly $1,000 per day, equivalent to $26,000 a day in 2018. These inheritances gave her a tremendous amount of wealth which she used to fund the ongoing construction.
Tabloids from the time said that, at some point after her infant daughter died of an illness known as marasmus, a children’s disease in which the body wastes away, and her husband died of pulmonary tuberculosis, a Boston medium told her (while supposedly channeling her late husband) that she should leave her home in New Haven and travel West, where she must continuously build a home for herself and the spirits of people who had fallen victim to Winchester rifles. Winchester left New Haven and headed for California. Though it is possible she was simply seeking a change of location and a hobby during her lengthy depression, other sources say that Winchester came to believe her family and fortune were haunted by ghosts and that only by moving West and continuously building them a house could she appease these spirits.
In 1884 she purchased an unfinished farmhouse in the Santa Clara Valley and began building her mansion. Carpenters were hired and worked on the house day and night until it became a seven-story mansion. She did not use an architect and added on to the building in a haphazard fashion, so the home contains numerous oddities such as doors and stairs that go nowhere, windows overlooking other rooms and stairs with odd-sized risers. Many accounts attribute these oddities to her belief in ghosts. Environmental psychologists have theorized that the odd layout itself contributes to the feeling of the house being haunted today.
Before the 1906 earthquake, the house had been seven stories high and carpenters may have been brought in initially to repair damages caused by the quake. Today it is only four stories. The house is predominantly made of redwood, as Mrs. Winchester preferred the wood; however, she disliked the look of it. She, therefore, demanded that a faux grain and stain be applied. This is why almost all the wood in the home is covered. Approximately 20,500 U.S. gallons (78,000 L) of paint were required to paint the house. The home itself is built using a floating foundation that is believed to have saved it from total collapse in the 1906 earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. This type of construction allows the home to shift freely, as it is not completely attached to its brick base. There are roughly 161 rooms, including 40 bedrooms, 2 ballrooms (one completed and one unfinished) as well as 47 fireplaces, over 10,000 panes of glass, 17 chimneys (with evidence of two others), two basements and three elevators. Winchester’s property was about 162 acres (66 ha) at one time, but the estate has since been reduced to 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) – the minimum necessary to contain the house and nearby outbuildings. It has gold and silver chandeliers, hand-inlaid parquet floors and trim, and a vast array of colors and materials. Due to Mrs. Winchester’s debilitating arthritis, special “easy riser” stairways were installed as a replacement for her original steep construction. This allowed her to move about her home freely as she was only able to raise each foot a few inches. There was only one working toilet for Winchester, but all other restrooms were decoys to confuse spirits. This is also the reason why she slept in a different room each night. The home’s conveniences were rare at the time of its construction. These included steam and forced-air heating, modern indoor toilets and plumbing, push-button gas lights, and Mrs. Winchester’s personal (and only) hot shower from indoor plumbing. There are also three elevators, including an Otis electric and one of which was powered by a rare horizontal hydraulic elevator piston. (Most elevator pistons are vertical to save space, but Winchester preferred the improved functionality of the horizontal configuration.)
在1906年的地震之前，房子已經高達七層樓了，最初可能會帶來木匠來修復地震造成的損失。今天只有四個故事。房子主要由紅木製成，因為溫徹斯特夫人更喜歡木頭;然而，她不喜歡它的外觀。因此，她要求使用人造穀物和污漬。這就是為什麼家裡幾乎所有木材都被覆蓋的原因。需要大約20,500美國加侖（78,000升）的油漆來塗漆。房屋本身是用浮動基礎建造的，據信這可以使它免於1906年地震和1989年Loma Prieta地震的徹底崩塌。這種類型的結構允許房屋自由移動，因為它沒有完全附著在其磚底上。大約有161間客房，包括40間臥室，2間宴會廳（一間已完工和一間未完工）以及47個壁爐，超過10,000個玻璃窗，17個煙囪（有兩個其他證據），兩個地下室和三個電梯。溫徹斯特的房產一度約為162英畝（66公頃），但該房產已經減少到4.5英畝（1.8公頃） – 這是房屋和附近附屬建築所需的最低限度。它有金色和銀色的吊燈，手工鑲嵌的鑲木地板和裝飾，以及各種顏色和材料。由於溫徹斯特太太的衰弱性關節炎，安裝了特殊的“簡易立管”樓梯作為其原始陡峭建築的替代品。這讓她可以自由地在家裡移動，因為她只能將每隻腳抬高幾英寸。溫徹斯特只有一個工作廁所，但所有其他洗手間都是誘惑混淆烈酒。這也是她每晚睡在不同房間的原因。在建造時，住宅的便利性很少。這些包括蒸汽和強制空氣加熱，現代室內廁所和管道，按鈕式煤氣燈，以及溫徹斯特夫人的室內管道的個人（和唯一）熱水淋浴。還有三部電梯，包括一台奧的斯電動機，其中一部由罕見的水平液壓升降機活塞提供動力。 （大多數電梯活塞是垂直的，以節省空間，但溫徹斯特更喜歡水平配置的改進功能。）
Mrs. Winchester never skimped on the many adornments that she believed contributed to its architectural beauty. Many of the stained glass windows were created by the Tiffany Company. Some were designed specifically for her, and others by her, including a “spider web” window that featured her favorite web design and the repetition of the number thirteen, another of her preoccupations. This window was never installed but exists in the so-called “$25,000 storage room” – so named because its contents were originally appraised at a value of $25,000. The value today is inestimable, but $25,000 would be equivalent to $374,000 in 2018. A second window was designed by Tiffany himself, so that when sunlight strikes the prismatic crystals a rainbow is cast across the room. The window was installed in an interior wall in a room with no light exposure, preventing the effect from being seen.
When Winchester died, all of her possessions (apart from the house) were bequeathed to her niece and personal secretary. Her niece then took everything she wanted and sold the rest in a private auction. It supposedly took six trucks working eight hours a day for six weeks to remove all of the furniture from the home, an account disputed by Winchester’s biographer. Mrs. Winchester made no mention of the mansion in her will, and appraisers considered the house worthless due to damage caused by the earthquake, the unfinished design and the impractical nature of its construction. It was sold at auction to a local investor for over $135,000, and subsequently leased for 10 years to John and Mayme Brown, who eventually purchased the house. In February 1923, five months after Winchester’s death, the house was opened to the public, with Mayme Brown serving as the first tour guide.
Today the home is owned by Winchester Investments LLC, a privately held company representing the descendants of John and Mayme Brown. The home retains unique touches that reflect Mrs. Winchester’s beliefs and her reported preoccupation with warding off malevolent spirits. These spirits are said to have directly inspired her as to the way the house should be built. The number thirteen and spider web motifs, which carried spiritual significance for her, occur throughout the house.
In the early 1990s the Winchester property had parapsychologist, anomalist and paranormal investigator Christopher Chacon conduct an investigation (30-day monitoring) of the reported “haunt phenomena” on the property.
In 2016, it was announced that another room was found: an attic space that contains a pump organ, Victorian couch, dress form, sewing machine and paintings. This room was made available for viewing by the public.
In 2017, the Winchester Mystery House debuted their first new daytime tour in 20 years, the “Explore More Tour”. This tour takes guests through rooms never before opened to the public, and explores the rooms left unfinished at the time of Sarah Winchester’s death.
溫徹斯特太太從不吝嗇她認為有助於其建築美的許多裝飾品。許多彩色玻璃窗都是由蒂芙尼公司創造的。有些是專門為她設計的，有些是由她設計的，包括一個“蜘蛛網”窗口，其中包含她最喜歡的網頁設計和重複數字13，這是她的另一個當務之急。這個窗口從未安裝過，但存在於所謂的“25,000美元的存儲空間”中 – 因為其內容最初被評估為25,000美元而得名。今天的價值是不可估量的，但是2018年的25,000美元相當於374,000美元。第二個窗口是由蒂芙尼親自設計的，因此當陽光照射到棱柱形水晶上時，會在房間內投射出彩虹。窗戶安裝在沒有光線照射的房間的內牆中，防止看到效果。
今天，房屋歸Winchester Investments LLC所有，這是一家代表John和Mayme Brown後代的私營公司。房子保留了獨特的風格，反映了溫徹斯特夫人的信仰和她報導的對惡意精神的警惕。據說這些靈魂直接激發了她對房屋建造方式的啟發。十三個和蜘蛛網圖案，對她來說具有精神意義，發生在整個房子裡。
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