Grand Palace 盛大宮殿

The Grand Palace (Thai: พระบรมมหาราชวัง, RTGS: Phra Borom Maha Ratcha Wang) are a complex of buildings at the heart of Bangkok, Thailand. The palace has been the official residence of the Kings of Siam (and later Thailand) since 1782. The king, his court, and his royal government were based on the grounds of the palace until 1925. King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), resided at the Chitralada Royal Villa and his successor King Vajiralongkorn (Rama X) at the Amphorn Sathan Residential Hall, both in the Dusit Palace, but the Grand Palace is still used for official events. Several royal ceremonies and state functions are held within the walls of the palace every year. The palace is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Thailand.

Construction of the palace began on 6 May 1782, at the order of King Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I), the founder of the Chakri Dynasty, when he moved the capital city from Thonburi to Bangkok. Throughout successive reigns, many new buildings and structures were added, especially during the reign of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V). By 1925, the king, the Royal Family and the government were no longer permanently settled at the palace, and had moved to other residences. After the abolition of absolute monarchy in 1932, all government agencies completely moved out of the palace.

In shape, the palace complex is roughly rectangular and has a combined area of 218,400 square metres (2,351,000 sq ft), surrounded by four walls. It is situated on the banks of the Chao Phraya River at the heart of the Rattanakosin Island, today in the Phra Nakhon District. The Grand Palace is bordered by Sanam Luang and Na Phra Lan Road to the north, Maharaj Road to the west, Sanam Chai Road to the east and Thai Wang Road to the south.

Rather than being a single structure, the Grand Palace is made up of numerous buildings, halls, pavilions set around open lawns, gardens and courtyards. Its asymmetry and eclectic styles are due to its organic development, with additions and rebuilding being made by successive reigning kings over 200 years of history. It is divided into several quarters: the Temple of the Emerald Buddha; the Outer Court, with many public buildings; the Middle Court, including the Phra Maha Monthien Buildings, the Phra Maha Prasat Buildings and the Chakri Maha Prasat Buildings; the Inner Court and the Siwalai Gardens quarter. The Grand Palace is currently partially open to the public as a museum, but it remains a working palace, with several royal offices still situated inside.

大皇宮(泰國:พระบรมมหาราชวัง,RTGS:Phra Borom Maha Ratcha Wang)是泰國曼谷市中心的建築群。自1782年以來,宮殿一直是暹羅國王(以及後來的泰國)的官邸。國王,他的宮廷和他的王室政府都以宮殿為基礎,直到1925年。國王Bhumibol Adulyadej(拉瑪九世)居住在Ditit宮的Chitralada皇家別墅和他的繼任者國王Vajiralongkorn(Rama X)在Amphorn Sathan住宅大廳,但大皇宮仍然用於官方活動。每年在宮殿的牆壁內舉行幾次皇家儀式和國家活動。宮殿是泰國最受歡迎的旅遊景點之一。

宮殿的建造於1782年5月6日開始,由Chakri王朝的創始人Phutthayotfa Chulalok(Rama I)命令,當時他將首都從吞武里遷至曼谷。在連續統治期間,增加了許多新的建築物和結構,特別是在朱拉隆功國王統治期間(拉瑪五世)。到1925年,國王,王室和政府不再永久定居在宮殿,並搬到了其他住宅。在1932年廢除絕對君主制後,所有政府機構都完全搬出了宮殿。

在形狀上,宮殿建築群大致呈矩形,總面積為218,400平方米(2,351,000平方英尺),四面環繞。它位於Rattanakosin島中心的湄南河畔,今天在Phra Nakhon區。大皇宮北邊是Sanam Luang和Na Phra Lan路,西邊是Maharaj路,東邊是Sanam Chai路,南邊是Thai Wang路。

大皇宮不是一個單一的建築,而是由許多建築物,大廳,圍繞開放式草坪,花園和庭院的亭子組成。它的不對稱和不拘一格的風格是由於它的有機發展,連續和重建是由連續統治的國王200多年的歷史。它分為幾個季度:玉佛寺;外院,有許多公共建築;中庭,包括Phra Maha Monthien建築,Phra Maha Prasat建築和Chakri Maha Prasat建築;內院和Siwalai Gardens區。大皇宮目前部分向公眾開放,作為一個博物館,但它仍然是一個工作宮殿,幾個皇家辦公室仍然在裡面。

General information
Location:Phra Nakhon, Bangkok, Thailand
Coordinates:13°45′00″N 100°29′31″ECoordinates: 13°45′00″N 100°29′31″E
Construction started:6 May 1782
Technical details
Size:24.4 hectares

地點:泰國曼谷Phra Nakhon
坐標:13°45’00“N 100°29’31”ECoordinates:13°45’00“N 100°29’31”E

The construction of the Grand Palace began on 6 May 1782, at the order of King Phutthayotfa Chulalok (Rama I). Having seized the crown from King Taksin of Thonburi, King Rama I was intent on building a capital city for his new Chakri Dynasty. He moved the seat of power from the city of Thonburi, on the west side of the Chao Phraya River, to the east side at Bangkok. The new capital city was turned into an artificial island when canals were dug along the east side. The island was given the name ‘Rattanakosin’. The previous royal residence was the Derm Palace, constructed for King Taksin in 1768.

The new palace was built on a rectangular piece of land on the very west side of the island, between Wat Pho to the south, Wat Mahathat to the north and with the Chao Phraya River on the west. This location was previously occupied by a Chinese community, whom King Rama I ordered to relocate to an area south and outside of the city walls; the area is now Bangkok’s Chinatown.

Desperate for materials and short on funds, the palace was initially built entirely out of wood, its various structures surrounded by a simple log palisade. On 10 June 1782, the king ceremonially crossed the river from Thonburi to take permanent residence in the new palace. Three days later on 13 June, the king held an abbreviated coronation ceremony, thus becoming the first monarch of the new Rattanakosin Kingdom. Over the next few years the king began replacing wooden structures with masonry, rebuilding the walls, forts, gates, throne halls and royal residences. This rebuilding included the royal chapel, which would come to house the Emerald Buddha.

To find more material for these constructions, King Rama I ordered his men to go upstream to the old capital city of Ayutthaya, which was destroyed in 1767 during a war between Burma and Siam. They dismantled structures and removed as many bricks as they could find, while not removing any from the temples. They began by taking materials from the forts and walls of the city. By the end they had completely leveled the old royal palaces. The bricks were ferried down the Chao Phraya by barges, where they were eventually incorporated into the walls of Bangkok and the Grand Palace itself. Most of the initial construction of the Grand Palace during the reign of King Rama I was carried out by conscripted or corvée labour. After the final completion of the ceremonial halls of the palace, the king held a full traditional coronation ceremony in 1785.

The layout of the Grand Palace followed that of the Royal Palace at Ayutthaya in location, organization, and in the divisions of separate courts, walls, gates and forts. Both palaces featured a proximity to the river. The location of a pavilion serving as a landing stage for barge processions also corresponded with that of the old palace. To the north of the Grand Palace there is a large field, the Thung Phra Men (now called Sanam Luang), which is used as an open space for royal ceremonies and as a parade ground. There was also a similar field in Ayutthaya, which was used for the same purpose. The road running north leads to the Front Palace, the residence of the Second King of Siam.

大皇宮的建造始於1782年5月6日,由King Phutthayotfa Chulalok(Rama I)命令。拉瑪一世奪取了Thonburi國王Taksin的王冠,他打算為他的新Chakri王朝建造一座首都。他將權力所在地從湄南河西側的吞武里市遷至曼谷東側。當沿著東側挖掘運河時,新的首都城市變成了一個人工島。該島被命名為“Rattanakosin”。以前的皇家住所是Derm Palace,於1768年為Taksin國王建造。


這座宮殿絕望的材料和資金短缺,最初完全由木材建造,其各種結構由簡單的木柵欄圍繞。 1782年6月10日,國王從吞武里穿過河流,在新宮殿中永久居住。三天后,6月13日,國王舉行了一個簡短的加冕典禮,成為新拉達那哥欣王國的第一位君主。在接下來的幾年裡,國王開始用磚石建築取代木結構,重建牆壁,堡壘,大門,王座大廳和皇家住所。這個重建包括皇家小教堂,它將來到玉佛寺。

為了找到更多這些建築的材料,拉瑪國王命令他的人員上游到老首都大城府,該市於1767年在緬甸和暹羅之間的戰爭中被摧毀。他們拆除了建築物並拆除了盡可能多的磚塊,同時沒有從寺廟中拆除任何磚塊。他們首先從城市的堡壘和城牆中採購材料。到最後,他們完全將舊的皇家宮殿夷為平地。這些磚塊通過駁船從湄南河(Chao Phraya)運走,最終被納入曼谷城牆和大皇宮。在拉瑪一世統治時期,大皇宮的大部分初期建築都是由徵兵或僕人進行的。在宮殿的儀式大廳最終完工後,國王於1785年舉行了一場完整的傳統加冕儀式。

大皇宮的佈局遵循大城府的皇宮,位置,組織以及獨立的法院,城牆,大門和堡壘的分區。兩座宮殿都靠近河流。作為駁船遊行登陸階段的展館的位置也與舊宮殿的位置相對應。在大皇宮的北面有一個大型的土地,Thung Phra Men(現在稱為Sanam Luang),用作皇家儀式的開放空間和遊行場地。在Ayutthaya也有一個類似的領域,用於同樣的目的。向北行駛的道路通往前宮,這是暹羅第二王的住所。

The Grand Palace is divided into four main courts, separated by numerous walls and gates: the Outer Court, the Middle Court, the Inner Court and the Temple of the Emerald Buddha. Each of these court’s functions and access are clearly defined by laws and traditions. The Outer Court is in the northwestern part of the Grand Palace; within are the royal offices and (formerly) state ministries. To the northeast is the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, the royal chapel, and home of the Emerald Buddha. The Middle Court housed the most important state apartments and ceremonial throne halls of the king. The Inner Court, at the south end of the complex, was reserved only for females, as it housed the king’s harem.

During the reign of King Phutthaloetla Naphalai (Rama II), the area of the Grand Palace was expanded southwards up to the walls of Wat Pho. Previously this area was home to offices of various palace officials. This expansion increased the area of the palace from 213,674 square metres (2,299,970 sq ft) to 218,400 square metres (2,351,000 sq ft). New walls, forts, and gates were constructed to accommodate the enlarged compound. Since this expansion, the palace has remained within its walls with new construction and changes being made only on the inside.

In accordance with tradition, the palace was initially referred to only as the Phra Ratcha Wang Luang (พระราชวังหลวง) or ‘Royal Palace’, similar to the old palace in Ayutthaya. However, during the reign of King Mongkut (Rama IV) the name Phra Boromma Maha Ratcha Wang or ‘Grand Palace’ was first used in official documents. This change of name was made during the elevation of Prince Chutamani (the king’s younger brother) to the title of Second King Pinklao in 1851. The proclamation of his title described the royal palace as the ‘supreme’ (บรม; Borom) and ‘great’ (มหา; Maha) palace. This title was given in order to distinguish the palace from the Second King’s palace (the Front Palace), which was described as the Phra Bovorn Ratcha Wang (พระบวรราชวัง) or the ‘glorious’ (บวร; Bovorn) palace.

Throughout the period of absolute monarchy, from 1782 to 1932, the Grand Palace was both the country’s administrative and religious centre. As the main residence of the monarch, the palace was also the seat of government, with thousands of inhabitants including guardsmen, servants, concubines, princesses, ministers, and courtiers. The palace’s high whitewashed castellated walls and extensive forts and guard posts mirrored those of the walls of Bangkok itself, and thus the Grand Palace was envisioned as a city within a city. For this reason a special set of palace laws were created to govern the inhabitants and to establish hierarchy and order.

By the 1920s a series of new palaces were constructed elsewhere for the king’s use; these included the more modern Dusit Palace, constructed in 1903, and Phaya Thai Palace in 1909. These other Bangkok residences began to replace the Grand Palace as the primary place of residence of the monarch and his court. By 1925 this gradual move out of the palace was complete. The growth and centralization of the Siamese state also meant that the various government ministries have grown in size and were finally moved out of the Grand Palace to their own premises. Despite this the Grand Palace remained the official and ceremonial place of residence as well as the stage set for elaborate ancient ceremonies of the monarchy. The end of the absolute monarchy came in 1932, when a revolution overthrew the ancient system of government and replaced it with a constitutional monarchy.

Today the Grand Palace is still a centre of ceremony and of the monarchy, and serves as a museum and tourist attraction as well.


在Phutthaloetla Naphalai國王(拉瑪二世)統治期間,大皇宮的區域向南擴展到臥佛寺的城牆。此前,這個地區是各種宮廷官員辦公室的所在地。這次擴建使宮殿面積從213,674平方米(2,299,970平方英尺)增加到218,400平方米(2,351,000平方英尺)。建造了新的牆壁,堡壘和大門以容納擴大的化合物。自從這次擴建以來,宮殿一直保持在其內部,新建築和僅在內部進行改造。

根據傳統,宮殿最初僅被稱為Phra Ratcha Wang Luang(พระราชวังหลวง)或’皇宮’,類似於大城府的舊宮殿。然而,在Mongkut國王統治期間(Rama IV),Phra Boromma Maha Ratcha Wang或“大皇宮”這個名字最初被用於官方文件中。這個名字的改變是在Chutamani王子(國王的弟弟)於1851年升為Second King Pinklao的稱號時發出的。他的頭銜的宣布將皇宮描述為“至尊”(บรม; Borom)和’偉大的’ ‘(มหา;瑪哈)宮。這個標題是為了區分宮殿和第二個國王的宮殿(前宮殿),後者被描述為Phra Bovorn Ratcha Wang(พระบวรราชวัง)或’光榮’(บวร; Bovorn)宮殿。




The Outer Court or Khet Phra Racha Than Chan Nork (เขตพระราชฐานชั้นนอก) of the Grand Palace is situated to the northwest of the palace (the northeast being occupied by the Temple of the Emerald Buddha). Entering through the main Visetchaisri Gate, the Temple of the Emerald Buddha is located to the left, with many public buildings located to the right.

These buildings include the headquarters and information centre of the Grand Palace and the Bureau of the Royal Household. Other important buildings inside the court include the Sala Sahathai Samakhom (ศาลาสหทัยสมาคม), used for important receptions and meetings. The Sala Luk Khun Nai (ศาลาลูกขุนใน) is an office building housing various departments of the Royal Household. The main office of the Royal Institute of Thailand was also formerly located here. The Outer Court has a small museum called the Pavilion of Regalia, Royal Decorations and Coins. The Phimanchaisri Gate opens directly unto the Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall and is the main portal from the Outer Court into the Middle Court.

Historically this court was referred to as Fai Na (ฝ่ายหน้า, literally In the front), and also served as the seat of the royal government, with various ministerial offices, a theatre, stables for the king’s elephants, barracks for the royal guards, the royal mint and an arsenal. By 1925, all government agencies and workers had vacated the site and all of the buildings were converted for use by the Royal Household.

大皇宮的外院或Khet Phra Racha Than Chan Nork(เขตพระราชฐานชั้นนอก)位於宮殿的西北部(東北部被玉佛寺所佔據)。通過主Visetchaisri門進入,玉佛寺位於左側,許多公共建築位於右側。

這些建築包括大皇宮的總部和信息中心以及皇室的局。法院內的其他重要建築包括Sala Sahathai Samakhom(ศาลาสหทัยสมาคม),用於重要的招待會和會議。 Sala Luk Khun Nai(ศาลาลูขนนน)是一座辦公樓,裡面有皇室的各個部門。泰國皇家學院的主要辦公室也曾經在這裡。外院設有一個名為Regalia Pavilion,Royal Decorations和Coins的小型博物館。 Phimanchaisri門直接通往Chakri Maha Prasat王座大廳,是從外院進入中庭的主要門戶。

從歷史上看,這個法院被稱為Fai Na(ฝ่ายหน้า,字面意思在前面),並且還擔任王室政府所在地,有各種部長級辦公室,劇院,國王大象的馬厩,皇家衛兵營房,皇家薄荷和軍火庫。到1925年,所有政府機構和工人都已離開現場,所有建築物都被改建為皇家住宅使用。

The Temple of the Emerald Buddha or Wat Phra Kaew (วัดพระแก้ว) (known formally as Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram, วัดพระศรีรัตนศาสดาราม) is a royal chapel situated within the walls of the palace. Incorrectly referred to as a Buddhist temple, it is in fact a chapel; it has all the features of a temple except for living quarters for monks. Built in 1783, the temple was constructed in accordance with ancient tradition dating back to Wat Mahathat, a royal chapel within the grounds of the royal palace at Sukhothai, and Wat Phra Si Sanphet at Ayutthaya. The famed Emerald Buddha is kept within the grounds of the temple.

The temple is surrounded on four sides by a series of walled cloisters, with seven different gates. Like those ancient royal temples of Sukhothai and Ayutthaya, the Wat Phra Kaew complex is separated from the living quarters of the kings. Within these walls are buildings and structures for diverse purposes and of differing styles, reflecting the changing architecture during the various reigns of the kings. Despite this, most of the buildings within adhere strictly to classical Thai architecture. The establishment of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha dates to the very founding of the Grand Palace and Bangkok itself.

玉佛寺或Wat Phra Kaew(วัดพระแก้ว)(正式名稱為Wat Phra Si Rattana Satsadaram,วัดพระศรีรัตนศาสดาราม)是一座位於宮殿內牆的皇家禮拜堂。錯誤地稱為佛教寺廟,它實際上是一個小教堂;它具有寺廟的所有特徵,除了僧侶的生活區。這座寺廟建於1783年,按照古老的傳統建造,其歷史可以追溯到素可泰皇家宮殿內的皇家禮拜堂和大城府的Wat Phra Si Sanphet。著名的玉佛寺保存在寺廟內。

寺廟四面環繞著一系列帶圍牆的迴廊,有七個不同的大門。像素可泰(Sukhothai)和大城府(Ayutthaya)的古代皇家寺廟一樣,玉佛寺(Wat Phra Kaew)與國王的生活區分開。在這些牆內是建築物和結構,用於不同的目的和不同的風格,反映了在國王的各種統治期間不斷變化的建築。儘管如此,大多數建築物都嚴格遵守泰國古典建築。玉佛寺的建立可以追溯到大皇宮和曼谷本身的建立。

The Inner Court or the Khet Phra Racha Than Chan Nai (เขตพระราชฐานชั้นใน), referred to simply as Fai Nai (ฝ่ายใน; RTGS: Fai Nai; literally ‘The Inside’), occupies the southernmost part of the Grand Palace complex. This area is reserved exclusively for use by the king and his harem of queens and consorts (minor wives). These women were often called ‘forbidden women’ or Nang harm (นางห้าม; RTGS: nang ham) by the general populace. Other inhabitants of the court were the king’s children and a multitude of ladies-in-waiting and servants. The king’s royal consorts were drawn from the ranks of the Siamese: royalty and nobility. Usually there were also the daughters of rulers of tributary states.Royal polygamy ended in practice during the reign of King Rama VI, who refused to keep a polygamous household. It was ended officially by King Rama VII in the early 20th century, when he outlawed the practice for all and took only one consort: Queen Rambhai Barni. By this time the inhabitants of the court had dwindled to only a few and finally disappeared within a few decades afterwards. Historically the Inner Court was a town complete within itself, divided by narrow streets and lawns. It had its own shops, government, schools, warehouses, laws and law courts, all exclusively controlled by women for the royal women. Men on special repair work and doctors were admitted only under the watchful eyes of its female guards. The king’s sons were permitted to live inside until they reached puberty; after their tonsure ceremonies they were sent outside the palace for further education. There are currently no inhabitants within the Inner Court and the buildings within are not used for any purpose; nevertheless, the entire court is closed to the public.

The population of the Inner Court varied over different periods, but by all accounts it was large. Each queen consort had her own household of around 200 to 300 women. Her various ladies-in-waiting were usually recruited from noble families; others were minor princesses who would also have a retinue of servants. Each minor wife or consort (เจ้าจอม; Chao Chom) had a fairly large household; this would increase significantly if she gave birth to the king’s child, as she would be elevated to the rank of consort mother (เจ้าจอมมารดา; Chao Chom Manda). Each royal lady had a separate establishment, the size of which was in proportion to her rank and status in accordance with palace law. Altogether the population of the Inner Court numbered nearly 3,000 inhabitants.

內閣或Khet Phra Racha Than Chan Nai(เขตพระราชฐานชั้น)น),簡稱為Fai Nai(ฝ่ายใน; RTGS:Fai Nai;字面意思為’The Inside’),佔據大皇宮複雜的最南端。這個區域專供國王及其皇后和配偶(未成年妻子)使用。這些女性通常被普通民眾稱為“禁女人”或Nang傷害(นางห้าม; RTGS:nang ham)。法院的其他居民是國王的孩子和眾多女士在等待和僕人。國王的皇室成員來自暹羅人的行列:皇室和貴族。通常也有支流國家統治者的女兒。在拉瑪六世國王統治時期,皇家一夫多妻制結束了,他們拒絕保留一夫多妻制的家庭。它在20世紀初由拉瑪七世國王正式結束,當時他禁止所有人的做法,只採取了一個配偶:女王Rambhai Barni。到這個時候,法院的居民已經減少到只有幾個,最後在幾十年後消失了。歷史上,內院是一個完整的城鎮,由狹窄的街道和草坪分隔。它有自己的商店,政府,學校,倉庫,法律和法院,所有這些都由女性專門為皇室女性控制。經過特殊修理工作和醫生的男性只能在其女性警衛的監視下被錄取。國王的兒子被允許住在裡面,直到他們到了青春期;在他們的儀式儀式結束後,他們被送到宮外接受進一步的教育。目前內院內沒有居民,內部建築物不得用於任何目的;然而,整個法院對公眾不公開。

內院的人口在不同時期有所不同,但從各方面來看,它都很大。每個女王配偶都有自己的家庭,大約200到300名女性。她的各種女士們通常都是從貴族家庭中招募來的;其他人都是小公主,他們也有隨從的僕人。每個未成年的妻子或配偶(เจ้าจอม; Chao Chom)都有一個相當大的家庭;如果她生下這個國王的孩子,這將會大大增加,因為她將被提升到母親的位置(เจ้าจอมมารดา; Chao Chom Manda)。每個皇室女士都有一個單獨的機構,其大小與其根據宮廷法的等級和地位成比例。內院的人口總共有近3000名居民。

The Inner Court was once populated by small low-lying structures surrounded by gardens, lawns and ponds. Over the course of the late 19th century new residential houses were constructed in this space, resulting in overcrowded conditions. Most of the buildings that remain were constructed during the reign of King Rama V in Western styles, mostly Italianate. The residences vary in size and are divided into three categories; small royal villas or Phra Thamnak (พระตำหนัก; RTGS: phra tamnak), villas or Thamnak (ตำหนัก; RTGS: tamnak) and houses or Ruen (เรือน; RTGS: ruean). Each was distributed to the inhabitants in accordance with their rank and stature. The court is surrounded and separated from the rest of the Grand Palace by a second set of walls within, parallel to those that ring around the palace as a whole. These walls are punctuated by a set of gates that connects the Middle the Inner Courts to the outside and to each other; the entrance through these gates were strictly monitored. The three main building groups in the Middle Court are built so that the residential halls of each are situated to the south and straddled the boundary between the Middle and Inner Court. Thus these residential spaces of the king became the focal point of palace life and the lives of the palace women on the inside. Immediately behind these residential halls are the large royal villas of high-ranking consorts such as Queen Sukhumala Marasri and Queen Savang Vadhana. Surrounding them are smaller villas belonging to other consorts such as those belonging to Princess Consort Dara Rasmi. Finally at the lower end (the southernmost part) are the row houses or Tao Teng (แถวเต๊ง; RTGS: thaeo teng) for the middle- and low-ranking consorts. These residences also functioned as a de facto secondary layer of surveillance, at the very edges of the Inner Court.

The Inner Court was governed by a series of laws known as the Palace Laws (กฎมนเทียรบาล, Kot Monthien Ban; literally ‘Palace Maintenance Law’). Some of the laws dated back to the times of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya. Most of them deal with the hierarchy and status of the women, while others deal with their behaviour and conduct. The order and discipline of the inhabitants were enforced by a regiment of all-female guards (กรมโขลน, Krom Klone; RTGS: kromma khlon). These guards were described by Prince Chula Chakrabongse as “tough looking amazons”. The head of this body was known as the Atibodi Fai Nai (อธิบดีฝ่ายใน; RTGS: Athibodi Fai Nai) the directress of the inside, under her command were various officials. These officials had specific responsibilities concerning every facet of life within the Inner Court. These responsibilities included duties concerning: discipline and jails, the maintenance of Buddhist images, the guarding of gates, the inner treasury and expenditure. One of their main duties was to accompany men, once they were admitted into the area, and to remain with them until they left. They controlled the traffic of the court and were drilled like regular soldiers. When any person of importance passed along the streets they ran ahead and cleared the way for them. At night they patrolled the streets with lamps or torches. Misbehaviour or indiscretion on behalf of the wives was punishable by death, for the women and the man. The last such punishment was met out in 1859 to a young nobleman and a minor wife, who were having an affair.

內院曾經有小型低窪建築,周圍環繞著花園,草坪和池塘。在19世紀後期,在這個空間建造了新的住宅,導致過度擁擠的條件。大多數留下的建築都是在拉瑪五世國王統治期間以西方風格建造的,大部分是意大利式建築。住宅大小不一,分為三類;小皇家別墅或Phra Thamnak(พระตำหนัก; RTGS:phra tamnak),別墅或Thamnak(ตำหนัก; RTGS:tamnak)和房屋或Ruen(เรือน; RTGS:ruean)。每個都根據他們的等級和身材分發給居民。法院被大殿的其餘部分圍繞並與第二組牆隔開,與整個宮殿周圍的牆相平行。這些牆壁由一系列大門打斷,這些大門將內部法院中間連接到外部並相互連接;通過這些大門的入口受到嚴格監控。中庭的三個主要建築群是為了使每個住宅大廳位於南部並橫跨中庭和內院之間的邊界。因此,這些國王的居住空間成為宮廷生活的焦點和宮內女性的生活。緊隨這些住宅大廳後面的是高級配偶的大型皇家別墅,如Queen Sukhumala Marasri和Queen Savang Vadhana。周圍是較小的別墅,屬於其他配件,如Princess Consort Dara Rasmi。最後在下端(最南端)是排屋或陶騰(แถวเต๊ง; RTGS:thaeo teng),用於中等和低等級的配偶。這些住宅在內院的邊緣也起著事實上的第二層監視作用。

內庭由一系列被稱為宮廷法的法律管轄(กฎมนเทียรบาล,Kot Monthien Ban;字面意思是“宮廷維護法”)。有些法律可以追溯到大城王國時代。其中大多數涉及婦女的等級和地位,而其他人則涉及她們的行為和行為。居民的秩序和紀律由一群全女性警衛執行(กรมโขลน,Krom Klone; RTGS:kromma khlon)。這些守衛被Chula Chakrabongse王子描述為“看起來很難看的亞馬遜”。這個機構的負責人被稱為Atibodi Fai Nai(อธิบดีฝ่ายใน; RTGS:Athibodi Fai Nai)內部的指揮,在她的指揮下是各種官員。這些官員對內庭的每一個方面負有具體責任。這些責任包括以下職責:紀律和監獄,維護佛像,守衛大門,內部財政和支出。他們的主要職責之一是,一旦他們被允許進入該地區,就陪伴他們,並留在他們身邊,直到他們離開。他們控制了法院的交通,並像普通士兵一樣被訓練。當任何重要人物沿著街道行進時,他們向前奔跑,為他們掃清障礙。晚上,他們用燈或火把在街上巡邏。代表妻子的不當行為或輕率行為將受到女性和男性的死刑懲罰。最後一次這樣的懲罰是在1859年與一位有外遇的年輕貴族和未成年妻子進行的。

Only the children of the king could be born inside the Inner Court. Every detail of the birth of the royal child was recorded, including the time of birth, which was to be used later by court astrologers to cast his or her horoscope. Ceremonies concerning the birth and the rites of passage of the child was performed within the walls of the Inner Court. The birth of a royal child was first announced by a succession of women who proclaimed the news along the Inner Court’s streets. There were two waiting orchestras, one on the inside made of women and one on the outside of men, who would then carry out the official proclamation with conch shell fanfares. If the child was a prince the Gong of Victory was to be struck three times. The children would live with their respective mothers and be educated in special schools within the court.

Although the women of ‘The Inside’ could never have the same level of freedom to those on the outside, life inside the Inner Court was not disagreeable, as life was easier than the outside and most necessities were provided for. The women usually entered the palace as girls and remained inside for the rest of their lives. As girls they would be assigned certain duties as pages; as they grew older and became wives and mothers they would have a household to look after. During the reign of King Rama IV, the women of the palace were for the first time allowed to leave; however they were required to obtain permission from the directoress first and were strictly chaperoned. Dr. Malcolm A. Smith, physician to Queen Saovabha Phongsri from 1914 to 1919, wrote that, “there is no evidence to show that they longed for freedom or were unhappy in their surroundings. Even Mrs. Leonowens, fanatical opponent of polygamy that she was, does not tell us that”. Indeed, Anna Leonowens’ book The English Governess at the Siamese Court, published in 1873, was set inside the Inner Court.


雖然“內幕”的女性永遠不會擁有與外界相同的自由,但內院的生活並不令人討厭,因為生活比外面容易,而且提供了大部分必需品。這些婦女通常作為女孩進入宮殿,並在其餘生中留在宮內。作為女孩,她們將被分配作為頁面的某些職責;隨著他們長大,成為妻子和母親,他們將有一個家庭照顧。在拉瑪四世國王統治期間,宮殿的婦女第一次被允許離開;但他們必須先得到首席執行官的許可,並嚴格陪伴。從1914年到1919年,女王Saovabha Phongsri的醫生Malcolm A. Smith博士寫道,“沒有證據表明他們渴望自由或者對周圍環境不滿意。甚至Leonowens夫人也是一夫多妻制的狂熱反對者。是的,並沒有告訴我們“。事實上,安娜·萊昂文斯(Anna Leonowens)在1873年出版的“暹羅法院的英國政府”(The English Governess)一書中設定了內幕。

The castellated walls of the Grand Palace were constructed during the reign of King Rama I in 1782. Later during the reign of King Rama II the Grand Palace and its walls were extended towards the south. Cannon emplacements were replaced with guard houses and were given rhyming names. The northern wall measures 410 metres, the east 510 metres, the south 360 metres and the west 630 metres, a total of 1,910 metres (6,270 ft). There are 12 gates in the outer walls. Inside the palace, there were over 22 gates and a labyrinth of inner walls; however some of these have already been demolished. Around the outer walls there are also 17 small forts. On the eastern wall, facing Sanamchai Road, there are two throne halls.

大皇宮的城牆是在1782年拉瑪一世統治時期建造的。後來在拉瑪二世國王統治期間,大皇宮及其城牆向南延伸。 大砲陣地被警衛隊所取代,並被賦予了押韻的名字。 北牆長410米,東510米,南360米,西630米,共1,910米(6,270英尺)。 外牆有12個門。 在宮殿內,有超過22個大門和一個迷宮般的內牆; 但其中一些已被拆除。 外圍周圍還有17個小堡壘。 在東牆上,面向Sanamchai路,有兩個寶座大廳。


FROM:Wat Phra Kaew & Grand Palace, Bangkok, Thailand in 4K (Ultra HD)

FROM:THE GRAND PALACE: Bangkok, Thailand

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