Natural History Museum, London 倫敦自然歷史博物館
The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history. It is one of three major museums on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, the others being the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. The Natural History Museum’s main frontage, however, is on Cromwell Road.
The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 80 million items within five main collections: botany, entomology, mineralogy, paleontology and zoology. The museum is a centre of research specialising in taxonomy, identification and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, such as specimens collected by Charles Darwin. The museum is particularly famous for its exhibition of dinosaur skeletons and ornate architecture—sometimes dubbed a cathedral of nature—both exemplified by the large Diplodocus cast that dominated the vaulted central hall before it was replaced in 2017 with the skeleton of a blue whale hanging from the ceiling. The Natural History Museum Library contains extensive books, journals, manuscripts, and artwork collections linked to the work and research of the scientific departments; access to the library is by appointment only. The museum is recognised as the pre-eminent centre of natural history and research of related fields in the world.
Although commonly referred to as the Natural History Museum, it was officially known as British Museum (Natural History) until 1992, despite legal separation from the British Museum itself in 1963. Originating from collections within the British Museum, the landmark Alfred Waterhouse building was built and opened by 1881 and later incorporated the Geological Museum. The Darwin Centre is a more recent addition, partly designed as a modern facility for storing the valuable collections.
Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the Natural History Museum does not charge an admission fee. (It did but was scrapped in 2001) The museum is an exempt charity and a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge is a patron of the museum. There are approximately 850 staff at the Museum. The two largest strategic groups are the Public Engagement Group and Science Group.
該博物館是生命和地球科學標本的所在地，包括五個主要館藏中的約8000萬件物品：植物學，昆蟲學，礦物學，古生物學和動物學。該博物館是一個專門從事分類學，鑑定和保護的研究中心。鑑於該機構的年代，許多藏品具有重要的歷史和科學價值，例如查爾斯達爾文收集的標本。博物館以其恐龍骷髏和華麗建築的展覽而聞名 – 有時被稱為大自然的大教堂 – 兩者都以大型梁龍演員為代表，在2017年被取代之前，拱形中央大廳佔據了主導的藍鯨骨架。天花板。自然歷史博物館圖書館包含與科學部門的工作和研究相關的大量書籍，期刊，手稿和藝術品收藏;訪問圖書館僅限預約。該博物館被公認為世界上自然歷史和相關領域研究的傑出中心。
Established:1881; 138 years ago
Location:Kensington & Chelsea, London, SW7
Coordinates:51°29′46″N 00°10′35″WCoordinates: 51°29′46″N 00°10′35″W
Type:Natural History Museum
Public transit access:London Underground South Kensington
坐標：51°29’46“N 00°10’35”WCoordinates：51°29’46“N 00°10’35”W
The foundation of the collection was that of the Ulster doctor Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1753), who allowed his significant collections to be purchased by the British Government at a price well below their market value at the time. This purchase was funded by a lottery. Sloane’s collection, which included dried plants, and animal and human skeletons, was initially housed in Montagu House, Bloomsbury, in 1756, which was the home of the British Museum.
Most of the Sloane collection had disappeared by the early decades of the nineteenth century. Dr George Shaw (Keeper of Natural History 1806–13) sold many specimens to the Royal College of Surgeons and had periodic cremations of material in the grounds of the museum. His successors also applied to the trustees for permission to destroy decayed specimens. In 1833 the Annual Report states that, of the 5,500 insects listed in the Sloane catalogue, none remained. The inability of the natural history departments to conserve its specimens became notorious: the Treasury refused to entrust it with specimens collected at the government’s expense. Appointments of staff were bedevilled by gentlemanly favoritism; in 1862 a nephew of the mistress of a Trustee was appointed Entomological Assistant despite not knowing the difference between a butterfly and a moth.
J. E. Gray (Keeper of Zoology 1840–74) complained of the incidence of mental illness amongst staff: George Shaw threatened to put his foot on any shell not in the 12th edition of Linnaeus’ Systema Naturae; another had removed all the labels and registration numbers from entomological cases arranged by a rival. The huge collection of the conchologist Hugh Cuming was acquired by the museum, and Gray’s own wife had carried the open trays across the courtyard in a gale: all the labels blew away. That collection is said never to have recovered.
The Principal Librarian at the time was Antonio Panizzi; his contempt for the natural history departments and for science in general was total. The general public was not encouraged to visit the Museum’s natural history exhibits. In 1835 to a Select Committee of Parliament, Sir Henry Ellis said this policy was fully approved by the Principal Librarian and his senior colleagues.
Many of these faults were corrected by the palaeontologist Richard Owen, appointed Superintendent of the natural history departments of the British Museum in 1856. His changes led Bill Bryson to write that “by making the Natural History Museum an institution for everyone, Owen transformed our expectations of what museums are for”.
該系列的基礎是阿爾斯特醫生漢斯·斯隆（1660-1753），他允許英國政府以遠低於當時市場價格的價格購買他的重要藏品。此次購買是由彩票資助的。 Sloane的藏品包括乾燥植物，動物和人類骨骼，最初於1756年在布魯姆斯伯里的Montagu House居住，這裡是大英博物館的所在地。
大多數Sloane系列在十九世紀初的幾十年中消失了。 George Shaw博士（1806-13自然歷史守護者）向皇家外科醫學院出售了許多標本，並在博物館內定期進行材料火化。他的繼任者也向受託人申請了摧毀腐爛標本的許可。 1833年年度報告指出，在斯隆目錄中列出的5,500種昆蟲中，沒有一種存在。自然歷史部門無法保存其標本變得臭名昭著：財政部拒絕將其委託給政府收取的標本。工作人員的任命受到紳士偏袒的困擾; 1862年，受託人的女主人的侄子被任命為昆蟲學助理，儘管不知道蝴蝶和蛾之間的區別。
J. E. Gray（動物學守護者1840-74）抱怨工作人員精神疾病的發生率：George Shaw威脅要將腳放在第12版Linnaeus’Systema Naturae上的任何貝殼上;另一個人從競爭對手安排的昆蟲病例中刪除了所有標籤和註冊號。博物館收購了龐大的海膽學家Hugh Cuming收藏品，格雷自己的妻子在大風中將開放的托盤放在院子裡：所有的標籤都被吹走了。據說該集合永遠無法恢復。
Owen saw that the natural history departments needed more space, and that implied a separate building as the British Museum site was limited. Land in South Kensington was purchased, and in 1864 a competition was held to design the new museum. The winning entry was submitted by the civil engineer Captain Francis Fowke, who died shortly afterwards. The scheme was taken over by Alfred Waterhouse who substantially revised the agreed plans, and designed the façades in his own idiosyncratic Romanesque style which was inspired by his frequent visits to the Continent. The original plans included wings on either side of the main building, but these plans were soon abandoned for budgetary reasons. The space these would have occupied are now taken by the Earth Galleries and Darwin Centre.
Work began in 1873 and was completed in 1880. The new museum opened in 1881, although the move from the old museum was not fully completed until 1883.
Both the interiors and exteriors of the Waterhouse building make extensive use of terracotta tiles to resist the sooty atmosphere of Victorian London, manufactured by the Tamworth-based company of Gibbs and Canning Limited. The tiles and bricks feature many relief sculptures of flora and fauna, with living and extinct species featured within the west and east wings respectively. This explicit separation was at the request of Owen, and has been seen as a statement of his contemporary rebuttal of Darwin’s attempt to link present species with past through the theory of natural selection.
The central axis of the museum is aligned with the tower of Imperial College London (formerly the Imperial Institute) and the Royal Albert Hall and Albert Memorial further north. These all form part of the complex known colloquially as Albertopolis.
歐文看到自然歷史部門需要更多的空間，這意味著一個單獨的建築，因為大英博物館的網站是有限的。購買了南肯辛頓的土地，並於1864年舉辦了一場設計新博物館的比賽。獲獎作品由土木工程師Francis Fowke上尉提交，後者不久後去世。該計劃由阿爾弗雷德·沃特豪斯（Alfred Waterhouse）接管，他大幅修改了商定的計劃，並以他自己獨特的羅馬式風格設計了外立面，這種風格的靈感來自於他經常訪問歐洲大陸。最初的計劃包括在主樓兩側的機翼，但由於預算原因，這些計劃很快就被放棄了。這些佔據的空間現在由地球畫廊和達爾文中心拍攝。
Even after the opening, the Natural History Museum legally remained a department of the British Museum with the formal name British Museum (Natural History), usually abbreviated in the scientific literature as B.M.(N.H.). A petition to the Chancellor of the Exchequer was made in 1866, signed by the heads of the Royal, Linnean and Zoological Societies as well as naturalists including Darwin, Wallace and Huxley, asking that the museum gain independence from the board of the British Museum, and heated discussions on the matter continued for nearly one hundred years. Finally, with the passing of the British Museum Act 1963, the British Museum (Natural History) became an independent museum with its own Board of Trustees, although – despite a proposed amendment to the act in the House of Lords – the former name was retained. In 1989 the museum publicly re-branded itself as The Natural History Museum and effectively stopped using the title British Museum (Natural History) on its advertising and its books for general readers. Only with the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 did the Museum’s formal title finally change to the Natural History Museum.
即使在開幕之後，自然歷史博物館仍然是大英博物館的一個部門，其正式名稱為大英博物館（自然歷史），通常在科學文獻中縮寫為B.M.（N.H。）。 1866年，皇家，林奈和動物學會的負責人以及包括達爾文，華萊士和赫胥黎在內的自然主義者簽署了向英國財政大臣提交的請願書，要求博物館從大英博物館的董事會獲得獨立，關於此事的激烈討論持續了將近一百年。最後，隨著1963年“大英博物館法案”的通過，大英博物館（自然歷史）成為了一個獨立的博物館，擁有自己的董事會，儘管 – 儘管上議院提出了對該法案的修正案，但保留了原來的名稱。 1989年，博物館公開重新命名為自然歷史博物館，並有效地停止使用大英博物館（自然歷史）的廣告和一般讀者的書籍。只有1992年的博物館和畫廊法案，博物館的正式稱號才最終改為自然歷史博物館。
In 1986, the museum absorbed the adjacent Geological Museum of the British Geological Survey, which had long competed for the limited space available in the area. The Geological Museum became world-famous for exhibitions including an active volcano model and an earthquake machine (designed by James Gardner), and housed the world’s first computer-enhanced exhibition (Treasures of the Earth). The museum’s galleries were completely rebuilt and relaunched in 1996 as The Earth Galleries, with the other exhibitions in the Waterhouse building retitled The Life Galleries. The Natural History Museum’s own Mineralogy displays remain largely unchanged as an example of the 19th-century display techniques of the Waterhouse building.
The central atrium design by Neal Potter overcame visitors’ reluctance to visit the upper galleries by “pulling” them through a model of the Earth made up of random plates on an escalator. The new design covered the walls in recycled slate and sandblasted the major stars and planets onto the wall. The Museum’s ‘star’ geological exhibits are displayed within the walls. Six iconic figures are the backdrop to discussing how previous generations have viewed Earth. These were later removed to make place for a Stegosaurus skeleton that was put on display in late 2015.
1986年，博物館吸收了鄰近的英國地質調查地質博物館，該博物館長期以來一直在爭奪該地區有限的空間。地質博物館因展覽而聞名世界，包括活火山模型和地震機器（由詹姆斯加德納設計），並舉辦了世界上第一個計算機增強展覽（地球寶藏）。博物館的畫廊於1996年作為地球畫廊完全重建和重新啟動，其他展覽在沃特豪斯建築中重新命名為The Life Galleries。自然歷史博物館自己的礦物學展覽基本保持不變，作為沃特豪斯建築的19世紀展示技術的一個例子。
The Darwin Centre (named after Charles Darwin) was designed as a new home for the museum’s collection of tens of millions of preserved specimens, as well as new work spaces for the museum’s scientific staff, and new educational visitor experiences. Built in two distinct phases, with two new buildings adjacent to the main Waterhouse building, it is the most significant new development project in the museum’s history.
Phase one of the Darwin Centre opened to the public in 2002, and it houses the zoological department’s ‘spirit collections’—organisms preserved in alcohol. Phase Two was unveiled in September 2008 and opened to the general public in September 2009. It was designed by the Danish architecture practice C. F. Møller Architects in the shape of a giant, eight-story cocoon and houses the entomology and botanical collections—the ‘dry collections’. It is possible for members of the public to visit and view non-exhibited items behind the scenes for a fee by booking onto one of the several Spirit Collection Tours offered daily.
Arguably the most famous creature in the centre is the 8.62-metre-long giant squid, affectionately named Archie.
達爾文中心的第一階段於2002年向公眾開放，它包含動物學系的“精神收藏” – 保存在酒精中的生物。第二階段於2008年9月亮相，於2009年9月向公眾開放。它由丹麥建築事務所CFMøllerArchitects設計，形狀為巨大的八層繭，內有昆蟲學和植物學系列 – ‘幹集合“。通過預訂每日提供的幾個精神收集之旅，公眾可以在幕後訪問和查看非展出物品。
One of the most famous and certainly most prominent of the exhibits—nicknamed “Dippy”—is a 105-foot (32 m)-long replica of a Diplodocus carnegii skeleton which was on display for many years within the central hall. The cast was given as a gift by the Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, after a discussion with King Edward VII, then a keen trustee of the British Museum. Carnegie paid £2,000 for the casting, copying the original held at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. The pieces were sent to London in 36 crates, and on 12 May 1905, the exhibit was unveiled to great public and media interest. The real fossil had yet to be mounted, as the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh was still being constructed to house it. As word of Dippy spread, Mr Carnegie paid to have additional copies made for display in most major European capitals and in Latin and South America, making Dippy the most-viewed dinosaur skeleton in the world. The dinosaur quickly became an iconic representation of the museum, and has featured in many cartoons and other media, including the 1975 Disney comedy One of Our Dinosaurs Is Missing. After 112 years on display at the museum, the dinosaur replica was removed in early 2017 to be replaced by the actual skeleton of a young blue whale. Dippy is currently on a tour of British museums as of 2018.
The blue whale skeleton that has replaced Dippy is another prominent display in the museum. The display of the skeleton, some 25 m long and weighing 4.5 tonnes, was only made possible in 1934 with the building of the New Whale Hall (now the Mammals (blue whale model) gallery). The whale had been in storage for 42 years since its stranding on sandbanks at the mouth of Wexford Harbour, Ireland in March 1891 after being injured by whalers. At this time, it was first displayed in the Mammals (blue whale model) gallery, but now takes pride of place in the museum’s Hintze Hall. Discussion of the idea of a life-size model also began around 1934, and work was undertaken within the Whale Hall itself. Since taking a cast of such a large animal was deemed prohibitively expensive, scale models were used to meticulously piece the structure together. During construction, workmen left a trapdoor within the whale’s stomach, which they would use for surreptitious cigarette breaks. Before the door was closed and sealed forever, some coins and a telephone directory were placed inside—this soon growing to an urban myth that a time capsule was left inside. The work was completed—entirely within the hall and in view of the public—in 1938. At the time it was the largest such model in the world, at 28.3 m in length. The construction details were later borrowed by several American museums, who scaled the plans further. The work involved in removing Dippy and replacing it with the whale skeleton was documented in a BBC Television special, Horizon: Dippy and the Whale, narrated by David Attenborough, which was first broadcast on BBC Two on 13 July 2017, the day before the whale skeleton was unveiled for public display.
The Darwin Centre is host to Archie, an 8.62-metre-long giant squid taken alive in a fishing net near the Falkland Islands in 2004. The squid is not on general display, but stored in the large tank room in the basement of the Phase 1 building. It is possible for members of the public to visit and view non-exhibited items behind the scenes for a fee by booking onto one of the several Spirit Collection Tours offered daily. On arrival at the museum, the specimen was immediately frozen while preparations commenced for its permanent storage. Since few complete and reasonably fresh examples of the species exist, “wet storage” was chosen, leaving the squid undissected. A 9.45-metre acrylic tank was constructed (by the same team that provide tanks to Damien Hirst), and the body preserved using a mixture of formalin and saline solution.
The museum holds the remains and bones of the “River Thames whale”, a northern bottlenose whale that lost its way on 20 January 2006 and swam into the Thames. Although primarily used for research purposes, and held at the museum’s storage site at Wandsworth.
Dinocochlea, one of the longer-standing mysteries of paleontology (originally thought to be a giant gastropod shell, then a coprolite and now a concretion of a worm’s tunnel), has been part of the collection since its discovery in 1921.
The museum keeps a wildlife garden on its west lawn, on which a potentially new species of insect resembling Arocatus roeselii was discovered in 2007.
其中一個最著名，最引人注目的展品 – 綽號“Dippy” – 是一個105英尺（32米）長的Diplodocus carnegii骨架複製品，在中央大廳展出多年。這部演員是蘇格蘭裔美國工業家安德魯·卡內基（Andrew Carnegie）在與愛德華七世（King Edward VII）討論後贈送的，後者是大英博物館的熱心受託人。卡內基為鑄造支付了2000英鎊，複製了卡內基自然歷史博物館的原件。這些作品被送往倫敦36個箱子，並於1905年5月12日，該展覽揭開了公眾和媒體的興趣。真正的化石尚未建成，因為匹茲堡的卡內基博物館仍在建造中。隨著Dippy的傳播，卡內基先生付出了額外的副本，在大多數歐洲主要城市以及拉丁美洲和南美洲展出，使得Dippy成為世界上觀看次數最多的恐龍骨架。恐龍很快成為博物館的標誌性代表，並出現在許多漫畫和其他媒體中，包括1975年的迪士尼喜劇“我們的恐龍之一失踪”。在博物館展出112年後，恐龍複製品於2017年初被拆除，取而代之的是年輕的藍鯨的實際骨架。截至2018年，Dippy目前正在參觀英國博物館。
取代Dippy的藍鯨骨架是博物館中另一個突出的展示。骨架的展示長約25米，重4.5噸，僅在1934年建成新鯨廳（現為哺乳動物（藍鯨模型）畫廊）。 1891年3月，在捕鯨者受傷後，鯨魚在愛爾蘭韋克斯福德港口的沙洲上擱淺了42年。在這個時候，它首次在Mammals（藍鯨模型）畫廊展出，但現在在博物館的Hintze Hall中佔據了一席之地。關於真人大小模型的想法的討論也始於1934年左右，並且在鯨魚館內進行了工作。由於採用如此大型動物的鑄件被認為過於昂貴，因此使用比例模型精心地將結構拼湊在一起。在施工過程中，工人們在鯨魚的肚子裡留下了一個活板門，他們會用它們偷偷偷偷地抽煙。在門被關閉並永久密封之前，一些硬幣和一個電話簿被放置在裡面 – 這很快就成長為一個城市神話，一個時間膠囊留在裡面。這項工作於1938年完全在大廳內，並在公眾面前完成。當時它是世界上最大的這種模型，長度為28.3米。後來幾個美國博物館借用了施工細節，他們進一步擴大了計劃。 BBC電視特別節目Horizon：Dippy and the Whale由David Attenborough講述，於2017年7月13日BBC Two播出，鯨魚前一天播出，其中包括刪除Dippy並將其替換為鯨魚骨架。骨架被公開展示。
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