Molinere Underwater Sculpture Park 莫林雷爾水下雕塑公園
The Molinere Underwater Sculpture Park is a collection of ecological underwater contemporary art located in the Caribbean sea off the west coast of Grenada, West Indies and was created by British sculptor Jason deCaires Taylor. In May 2006 the world’s first underwater sculpture park was open for public viewing. Taylor’s aim was to engage local people with the underwater environment that surrounds them using his works which are derived from life casts of the local community. He installed concrete figures onto the ocean floor, mostly consisting of a range of human forms, from solitary individuals to a ring of children holding hands, facing into the oceanic currents.
Molinere水下雕塑公園是一個生態水下當代藝術的集合，位於西印度群島格林納達西海岸的加勒比海，由英國雕塑家Jason deCaires Taylor創建。 2006年5月，世界上第一個水下雕塑公園開放供公眾觀看。 泰勒的目標是利用當地社區生活中的作品，將當地人與周圍的水下環境聯繫起來。 他在海底安裝了具體的人物，主要由一系列人類組成，從孤獨的人到一群手牽著手，面向洋流。
The Sculpture park, which began construction in 2006 is situated on the sandy ocean floor in the barren Molinere Bay and it now acts as an aid to relieve pressure on natural reefs which have become popular among water sports enthusiasts, particularly in nearby Flamingo Bay which is the most visited snorkelling destination on the island. There are over sixty-five concrete individual sculptures covering an area of over 800 square meters and in total weigh around 15 tonnes in dry cement. There has been some debate as to the intention of the park and whether it was a dedication to the slaves that were thrown overboard during the journey through the Middle Passage from West Africa to the Americas. In response the artist says “It was never my intention to have any connection to the Middle passage. Although it was not my intention from the outset I am very encouraged how it has resonated differently within various communities and feel it is working as an art piece by questioning our identity, history and stimulating debate.”- Jason de Caires Taylor.
The sculpture park is accessible via boat from the main port of St Georges (2 miles/3 km North of the capital) or Grand Anse Bay on the West coastline. The sculptures are situated in a variety of depths of water with a maximum of 12 meters, and the park is visited daily by scuba divers, snorkelers and glass bottom boats. Recently a local artist on the island has added new works to the sculpture park.
雕塑公園於2006年開始建設，位於貧瘠的Molinere海灣的沙質海底，現在它可以幫助減輕天然珊瑚礁的壓力，這些天然珊瑚礁在水上運動愛好者中很受歡迎，特別是在附近的火烈鳥灣。島上游客最多的浮潛目的地。有超過65個混凝土個人雕塑，面積超過800平方米，乾水泥總重約15噸。關於公園的意圖以及是否是對從西非到美洲的中間通道旅程中被拋棄的奴隸的奉獻，一直存在爭議。作為回應，藝術家說：“我從來沒有打算與中間通道有任何联系。雖然從一開始就不是我的意圖，但我非常鼓勵它如何在各個社區內產生不同的共鳴，並感覺它作為一件藝術作品通過質疑我們的身份，歷史和激發辯論。“ – Jason de Caires Taylor。
雕塑公園可從St Georges主要港口（首都北部2英里/ 3公里）或西海岸線的Grand Anse Bay乘船抵達。這些雕塑位於各種深度的水中，最多12米，每天都有潛水員，浮潛者和玻璃底船參觀。最近，島上的一位當地藝術家為雕塑公園增添了新的作品。
The coral reef around Grenada suffered damage from Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and Emily in 2005. It has been recorded that only 10–15% of the seabed has a substratum solid enough for natural reefs to grow upon and it can take between 10 and 80 years for hard coral to develop.While it is predicted that up to 60% of natural coral reefs may be depleted by 2050. The sculptures have been designed to promote coral growth using techniques to reduce the pH of the cement and by applying a textured surface. This encourages coral polyps to attach onto the surface and eventually the structure becomes a sanctuary for small marine life. Over time coral will change their appearance and the tides will enhance the texture applied bringing with it new inhabitants. Already Taylor’s sculptures have been shown to be a home to an array of aquatic life: including, flounders, parrot fish, Branded coral shrimp and fire worms.
Artificial reef constructions like Taylor’s and those from a US company Reef Ball are designed and constructed using resilient, stable and environmentally responsive materials. They are positioned in the ocean at the correct time of year to coincide with coral spawning, in an area that has suffered previous substantial decimation from storm damage. His works carry the aim of relieving the strain placed on the natural coral reef by human pollution, acidification, overfishing, by redirecting divers and snorkelers away from natural reefs to endorse the opportunity for repair and regeneration. In an article in Symposium Magazine Taylor quotes “The underwater sculpture gallery is a project aiming to create a unique space which highlights environmental processes and explores the complex relationships between art and its environment. This unique project will provide an unparalleled opportunity to explore a dynamic seascape and to appreciate the island’s beauty and diversity”.
Grace Reef was installed in 2006 at a depth of 12 feet. The first installation in the hurricane damaged bay of Molinere and consists of 16 concrete statues cast from the body of a local Grenadian woman and positioned lying down on the sea floor. After 14 months the figures had begun to distort with the inhabitation of life.
The Lost Correspondent was installed in 2006 at a depth of 22 feet. Referenced to be a modern day Vesuvius disaster, he is a lone concrete figure at a desk poised over a typewriter. The surface of the desk is covered with a selection of newspaper articles dating back to the 1970s with many holding political significance from the Cuban alignment before the revolution.
The Unstill Life, installed in 2006 at a depth of 25 feet, is a classical study of an artist’s still life using simple modern day objects like a table, vase and fruit bowl. The static sculpture overtime has its appearance constantly changed by the course of nature.
Vicissitudes, installed in 2007 at a depth of 14 feet, is Taylor’s most recognised work in the park: a ring of 26 standing children, holding hands and facing outwards into the current. The design took six months to make, weighed 15 tonnes in dry cement and was constructed to withstand strong currents and tidal motion. The ring symbolises the concept of life’s ongoing cycle and highlights the importance of creating a sustainable and well managed environment for future generations, holding reference to the ability of children adapt to their surroundings.
The Fall From Grace, installed in 2007 at a depth of 21 feet, is a life size male figure riding a bicycle. After 8 months in the ocean, aquatic life was already making it a home.
Tam CC Project was installed in 2007 at a depth of 6 feet. It is a construction of 18 concrete heads fixed to a rock face in shallow water. Casts were made of students faces from T. A. Marryshow Community College, Grenada.
Grace Reef於2006年安裝，深度為12英尺。第一次安裝在颶風破壞的Molinere海灣，由當地格林納達婦女的屍體鑄造的16個混凝土雕像組成，位於海底。 14個月後，這些數字開始隨著生活的居住而扭曲。
The Lost Correspondent於2006年安裝在22英尺的深度。他被稱為現代維蘇威火山的災難，他是一個專橫於打字機的桌子上的一個具體人物。桌子的表面上覆蓋著一系列可追溯到20世紀70年代的報紙文章，其中許多報紙在革命前的古巴陣營中具有政治意義。
Fall From Grace於2007年安裝，深度為21英尺，是騎自行車的真人大小的男性形象。在海洋中度過了8個月之後，水生生物已經成為一個家。
Tam CC項目於2007年安裝，深度為6英尺。它是一個18個混凝土頭的結構，固定在淺水中的岩面上。演員是由格林納達T. A. Marryshow社區學院的學生面孔製作的。
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