Kazan Cathedral, Saint Petersburg 喀山大教堂,聖彼得堡

Kazan Cathedral or Kazanskiy Kafedralniy Sobor (Russian: Каза́нский кафедра́льный собо́р), also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan, is a cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church on the Nevsky Prospekt in Saint Petersburg. It is dedicated to Our Lady of Kazan, one of the most venerated icons in Russia.

喀山大教堂或Kazanskiy Kafedralniy Sobor(俄語:Казанскийкафедральныйсобор),也被稱為喀山聖母大教堂,是聖彼得堡Nevsky Prospekt的俄羅斯東正教教堂。 它致力於喀山聖母,這是俄羅斯最受尊敬的偶像之一。

Affiliation:Russian Orthodox
Location:Nevsky Prospect 25,
Saint Petersburg
Architect(s):Andrey Voronikhin
Architectural style:Empire
Length:82.5 m (NS-WE interior)
90 m (exterior-stairs)
Width:86 m (exterior-stairs)
Interior area:4,000 m² (interior)
6,200 m² (exterior)
Height (max):71.6 m (top cross)

地點:Nevsky Prospect 25,
建築師:Andrey Voronikhin

Construction of the cathedral started in 1801 and continued for ten years under the supervision of Alexander Sergeyevich Stroganov. Upon its completion in 1811, the new temple replaced the Church of Nativity of the Theotokos, which was disassembled when the Kazan Cathedral was consecrated.

The architect Andrey Voronikhin modelled the building on St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Some art historians assert that Emperor Paul (reigned 1796-1801) intended to build a similar church on the other side of Nevsky Prospect that would mirror the Kazan Cathedral, but such plans failed to materialize. Although the Russian Orthodox Church strongly disapproved of the plans to create a replica of a Catholic basilica in Russia’s then capital, several courtiers supported Voronikhin’s Empire Style design.

After Napoleon invaded Russia (1812) and the commander-in-chief General Mikhail Kutuzov asked Our Lady of Kazan for help, the church’s purpose altered. The Patriotic War over, Russians saw the cathedral primarily as a memorial to their victory over Napoleon. Kutuzov himself was interred in the cathedral in 1813; and Alexander Pushkin wrote celebrated lines meditating over his sepulchre. In 1815 keys to seventeen cities and eight fortresses were brought by the victorious Russian army from Europe and placed in the cathedral’s sacristy. In 1837, Boris Orlovsky designed two bronze statues of Kutuzov and of Barclay de Tolly which stand in front of the cathedral.

In 1876 the Kazan demonstration, the first political demonstration in Russia, took place in front of the church. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the authorities closed the cathedral (January 1932). In November 1932 it reopened as the pro-Marxist “Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism”. Services resumed in 1992, and four years later the cathedral was returned to the Russian Orthodox Church. As of 2017 it functions as the mother cathedral of the metropolis of St. Petersburg.

The cathedral’s interior, with its numerous columns, echoes the exterior colonnade and is reminiscent of a palatial hall, being 69 metres in length and 62 metres in height. The interior features numerous sculptures and icons created by the best Russian artists of the day. A wrought-iron grille separating the cathedral from a small square behind it is sometimes cited as one of the finest ever constructed.

The cathedral’s huge bronze doors are one of four copies of the original doors of the Baptistery in Florence, Italy (the other three are at Grace Cathedral in San Francisco, United States, at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, United States, and at the Florence Baptistery itself).

The Kazan Cathedral is considered to be the model for the neoclassical style of Helsinki Cathedral, one of the most iconic landmarks of Helsinki, Finland.

大教堂的建造始於1801年,並在Alexander Sergeyevich Stroganov的監督下持續了十年。在1811年完工後,新的寺廟取代了Theotokos的誕生教堂,當喀山大教堂被奉獻時,該教堂被拆除。

建築師Andrey Voronikhin在羅馬的聖彼得大教堂建造了這座建築。一些藝術史學家斷言,保羅皇帝(1796 – 1801年在位)打算在涅瓦大街的另一邊建造一座類似的教堂,這座教堂將反映喀山大教堂,但這些計劃未能實現。雖然俄羅斯東正教會強烈反對在俄羅斯當時的首都建立天主教大教堂複製品的計劃,但幾位朝臣支持Voronikhin的帝國風格設計。

在拿破崙入侵俄羅斯(1812年)和總司令米哈伊爾庫圖佐夫請求喀山聖母幫助之後,教會的目的發生了變化。在愛國戰爭中,俄羅斯人認為這座大教堂主要是為了紀念他們戰勝拿破崙。庫圖佐夫本人於1813年在大教堂內埋葬;亞歷山大·普希金(Alexander Pushkin)寫了一些著名的線條,冥想著他的墳墓。 1815年,17個城市和8個堡壘的鑰匙被來自歐洲的勝利的俄羅斯軍隊帶到了大教堂的聖器收藏室。 1837年,鮑里斯·奧爾洛夫斯基(Boris Orlovsky)在大教堂前設計了兩座庫圖佐夫(Cuutuzov)和巴克萊德托利(Barclay de Tolly)銅像。

1876年,喀山示威是俄羅斯的第一次政治示威,發生在教堂前。 1917年俄國革命後,當局關閉了大教堂(1932年1月)。 1932年11月,它重新開放為親馬克思主義的“宗教和無神論史博物館”。服務於1992年恢復,四年後,大教堂被送回俄羅斯東正教會。截至2017年,它作為聖彼得堡大都市的母親大教堂。


大教堂巨大的青銅門是意大利佛羅倫薩洗禮堂原始門的四個副本之一(其他三個在美國舊金山的格雷斯大教堂,在美國堪薩斯城的尼爾森 – 阿特金斯藝術博物館) ,以及佛羅倫薩洗禮堂本身)。



FROM:Kazan Cathedral Saint Petersburg 2018

FROM:Kazan Cathedral, Saint-Petersburg

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