Kazan Cathedral, Moscow 喀山大教堂，莫斯科
Kazan Cathedral Russian: Казанский собор, formally known as the “Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan”, is a Russian Orthodox church located on the northeast corner of Red Square in Moscow, Russia. The current building is a reconstruction of the original church, which was destroyed at the direction of then General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin, in 1936.
1625, destroyed 1936;
The original cathedral
Upon recovering Moscow from the armies of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1612 at the close of the Time of Troubles, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky attributed his success to the divine help of the icon Theotokos of Kazan, to whom he had prayed on several occasions. From his private funds, he financed construction of a wooden church to the Virgin of Kazan on Red Square in Moscow, which was first mentioned in historical records in 1625. After the diminutive shrine was destroyed by a fire in 1632, Tsar Michael I, ordered it replaced with a brick church. The one-domed edifice, featuring several tiers of kokoshniki, a wide gallery, and a tented belfry, was consecrated in October 1636.
1612年，在麻煩時期結束時，波蘭 – 立陶宛聯邦的軍隊從莫斯科軍隊恢復莫斯科時，王子德米特里·波扎爾斯基將他的成功歸功於喀山圖標Theotokos的神聖幫助，他多次向他祈禱過。從他的私人資金中，他資助建造了一座木製教堂，建在莫斯科紅場的喀山聖母院，這是1625年的歷史記錄中首次提到的。1632年，小型神社被火燒毀後，沙皇邁克爾一世，下令它取而代之的是磚砌教堂。 1636年10月，這座獨立的大廈以幾層kokoshniki，寬闊的畫廊和帳篷鐘樓為特色。
Kazan Cathedral was considered one of the most important churches in Moscow. Annually on the anniversary of the liberation of Moscow from Poland-Lithuania, a solemn parade led by the Patriarch and the Tsar carried a processional cross from the Kremlin. By the end of the 17th century, the church building was expanded and received a bell tower and a redesigned entrance. Numerous other renovations of the cathedral were undertaken during the imperial period, notably during 1801, 1805, and 1865, and much of the original design was lost behind later additions.
The history of the cathedral was tempestuous, as evidenced by the fact that its archpriest Avvakum led the party of religious dissenters, or Old Believers.
喀山大教堂被認為是莫斯科最重要的教堂之一。每年在莫斯科從波蘭 – 立陶宛解放的周年紀念日，由族長和沙皇領導的莊嚴遊行帶著克里姆林宮的遊行十字架。到17世紀末，教堂建築擴建，並收到了一座鐘樓和一座重新設計的入口。在帝國時期，特別是在1801年，1805年和1865年期間，對大教堂進行了許多其他裝修，並且大部分原始設計在後來的添加中丟失了。
The distinguished Russian restorer Peter Baranovsky supervised a complete reconstruction of the church’s exterior to its original design in 1929–1932. Some specialists, however, criticised the accuracy of this reconstruction.
In 1936, when Red Square was being prepared for holding the military parades of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin ordered the square cleared of churches. Although efforts were made by Baranovsky to save it, he could not prevent the Kazan Cathedral from being demolished (though Baranovsky did manage to save another of Red Square’s cathedrals, Saint Basil’s Cathedral, from destruction). In its place, initially a temporary building housing offices for the Communist International was erected. It was later used as a summer café.
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