Palacio de Cristal
The Palacio de Cristal (“Glass Palace”) is a conservatory located in Madrid’s Buen Retiro Park. It was built in 1887 on the occasion of the Exposition of the Philippines, held in the same year, then a Spanish colonial possession. The architect was Ricardo Velázquez Bosco.
Palacio de Cristal（“玻璃宮殿”）是位於馬德里Buen Retiro公園的溫室。 它建於1887年菲律賓博覽會，同年舉行，然後是西班牙殖民地的財產。 建築師是RicardoVelázquezBosco。
The Palacio de Cristal, in the shape of a Greek cross, is made almost entirely of glass set in an iron framework on a brick base, which is decorated with ceramics. Its cupola makes the structure over 22 metres high. When it was erected, glass and iron construction on a large scale was already to be seen in Madrid at Delicias station (1880), the work of a French architect. However the curved architecture of the Palacio de Cristal is more comparable to the techniques pioneered by the British architects Joseph Paxton (who was responsible for London’s Crystal Palace) and Decimus Burton (who was responsible for the Palm House at Kew Gardens).
Palacio de Cristal，呈希臘十字架形狀，幾乎完全由玻璃製成，鑲嵌在磚底上的鐵框架中，用陶瓷裝飾。 它的沖天爐使結構高度超過22米。 在建造時，大型的玻璃和鐵建築已經在馬德里Delicias車站（1880年）看到，這是法國建築師的工作。 然而，Palacio de Cristal的弧形建築更接近英國建築師Joseph Paxton（負責倫敦水晶宮）和Decimus Burton（負責Kew Gardens棕櫚屋）的技術。
The cast-iron frame was manufactured in Bilbao. The structure was designed in a way that would allow it to be re-erected on another site (as happened to the equivalent building in London). However, the building has remained on the original site, next to a lake, and has been restored to its original appearance. It is no longer used as a greenhouse, and is currently used for art exhibits.
鑄鐵框架在畢爾巴鄂製造。 該結構的設計方式允許它在另一個地點重新豎立（就像在倫敦的同等建築物中發生的那樣）。 然而，該建築一直保留在原址，靠近湖泊，並已恢復原貌。 它不再用作溫室，目前用於藝術展覽。
The building’s architecture was influenced by Joseph Paxton who designed the Crystal Palace and Kew Gardens’ Palm House in London. Like its English counterparts, the Palacio was designed to be dismantled, moved and re-constructed on another site. However, the building has never been moved and remains at its original site next to a large man-made lake where visitors can rent boats to get a closer view of the terrapins, black swans, geese and ducks that make the lake their home. The 321-acre park is open year-’round, except on Tuesdays, and is home to over 15,000 varieties of trees.
該建築的建築受到約瑟夫帕克斯頓的影響，他設計了水晶宮和倫敦邱園的棕櫚屋。 與其英國同行一樣，Palacio被設計為在另一個地點拆除，移動和重建。 然而，該建築從未被移動過，並且仍然保留在原始地點旁邊的一個大型人工湖旁，遊客可以在那裡租船，更近距離地觀察水龜，黑天鵝，鵝和鴨子，使湖泊成為他們的家。 佔地321英畝的公園周二開放，週二除外，擁有超過15,000種樹木。
The Palacio was the first non-industrial building in Spain to be constructed of iron and glass and was built in only five months. Wrought iron in the shape of angels’ faces decorates the upper ledge of the building; these decorations also serve as supports for the rain gutters. The ceramic tiles surrounding the perimeter of the building were made by Daniel Zuloaga, and are adorned with flowers, dragons and stars.
Palacio是西班牙第一座採用鐵和玻璃建造的非工業建築，僅用了五個月就建造完成。 天使形狀的鍛鐵裝飾了建築物的上部壁架; 這些裝飾品也可作為雨水槽的支撐。 圍繞建築周邊的瓷磚由Daniel Zuloaga製作，裝飾著鮮花，龍和星星。
Roman Ondák, a Slovakian-born artist, is the most recent artist to have his work exhibited at the Palacio de Cristal. Ondák’s creations are notable for their grand scale and specific purposes. Scene (the name of Ondák’s creation) was constructed and designed specifically for the Palacio de Cristal. It is an elevated walkway that is accessed from the inside of the building but which encircles the outside of the building. A brochure describing the walkway notes, “this walkway… offers all its visitors the opportunity of a new perception of the space, for the Palacio de Cristal can now be looked into from the outside in a way not previously permitted by its architecture.”
斯洛伐克出生的藝術家RomanOndák是最近在Palacio de Cristal展出作品的藝術家。 Ondák的創作以其宏大規模和特定目的而著稱。 場景（Ondák創作的名稱）是專為Palacio de Cristal而設計和設計的。 這是一條高架走道，可從建築物內部進入，但環繞建築物的外部。 一本描述人行道筆記的小冊子，“這條走道……為所有遊客提供了對空間感知的機會，因為Palacio de Cristal現在可以通過其建築以前不允許的方式從外部進行調查。”
The Palacio de Cristal has only needed to be restored twice. Once in 1975, when an addition at the back of the building was removed and enhancements were made which allowed the rooms to be used as exhibit halls, and then from 1994 – 1998. This restoration reinforced the metal structures, updated the security systems, and repaired some of the ceramic tiles.
Palacio de Cristal只需要修復兩次。 一旦在1975年，當建築物後面的一個附加物被移除並且進行了改進，使得房間可以用作展覽廳，然後從1994年到1998年。這種修復加強了金屬結構，更新了安全系統，以及 修復了一些瓷磚。
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