Strasbourg cathedral 斯特拉斯堡主教座堂

Strasbourg Cathedral or the Cathedral of Our Lady of Strasbourg (French: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Strasbourg, or Cathédrale de Strasbourg, German: Liebfrauenmünster zu Straßburg or Straßburger Münster), also known as Strasbourg Minster, is a Catholic cathedral in Strasbourg, Alsace, France. Although considerable parts of it are still in Romanesque architecture, it is widely considered to be among the finest examples of high, or late, Gothic architecture. Erwin von Steinbach is credited for major contributions from 1277 to his death in 1318.

At 142 metres (466 feet), it was the world’s tallest building from 1647 to 1874 (227 years), when it was surpassed by St. Nikolai’s Church, Hamburg. Today it is the sixth-tallest church in the world and the highest extant structure built entirely in the Middle Ages.

Described by Victor Hugo as a “gigantic and delicate marvel”, and by Goethe as a “sublimely towering, wide-spreading tree of God”, the cathedral is visible far across the plains of Alsace and can be seen from as far off as the Vosges Mountains or the Black Forest on the other side of the Rhine. Sandstone from the Vosges used in construction gives the cathedral its characteristic pink hue.

The construction, and later maintenance, of the cathedral is supervised by the “Foundation of Our Lady” (Fondation de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame) since 1224.

斯特拉斯堡大教堂或斯特拉斯堡聖母大教堂(法語:CathédraleNotre-Dame de Strasbourg,或者德國大教堂:LiebfrauenmünsterzuStraßburg或StraßburgerMünster),也被稱為斯特拉斯堡大教堂,是斯特拉斯堡,阿爾薩斯的天主教大教堂,法國。雖然它的相當一部分仍然在羅馬式建築中,但它被廣泛認為是高級或晚期哥特式建築的最好例子之一。歐文·馮·斯坦巴赫(Erwin von Steinbach)因其從1277年到1318年去世的重大貢獻而受到讚譽。




Record height
Tallest in the world from 1647 to 1874
Preceded by St. Mary’s Church, Stralsund
Surpassed by:St. Nicholas’ Church, Hamburg
General information
Location:Strasbourg, France
Coordinates:48°34′54″N 7°45′03″ECoordinates: 48°34′54″N 7°45′03″E
Construction started:1015
Antenna spire:142 m (466 ft)
Technical details
Floor count:n/a

超越:聖。 漢堡尼古拉斯教堂
坐標:48°34’54“N 7°45’03”ECoordinates:48°34’54“N 7°45’03”E

Previous buildings on the site
Archaeological excavations below and around the cathedral have been conducted in 1896–1897, 1907, 1923–1924, 1947–1948, between 1966 and 1972 and again between 2012 and 2014.

The site of the current cathedral was used for several successive religious buildings, starting from the Argentoratum period, when a Roman sanctuary occupied the site up to the building that is there today.

It is known that a cathedral was erected by the bishop Saint Arbogast of the Strasbourg diocese at the end of the seventh century, on the base of a temple dedicated to the Virgin Mary, but nothing remains of it today. Strasbourg’s previous cathedral, of which remains dating back to the late 4th century or early 5th century were unearthed in 1948 and 1956, was situated at the site of the current Église Saint-Étienne.

In the eighth century, the first cathedral was replaced by a more important building that would be completed under the reign of Charlemagne. Bishop Remigius von Straßburg (also known as Rémi) wished to be buried in the crypt, according to his will dated 778. It was certainly in this building that the Oaths of Strasbourg were pronounced in 842. Excavations revealed that this Carolingian cathedral had three naves and three apses. A poem described this cathedral as decorated with gold and precious stones by the bishop Ratho (also Ratald or Rathold). The basilica caught fire on multiple occasions, in 873, 1002, and 1007.

In 1015, bishop Werner von Habsburg laid the first stone of a new cathedral on the ruins of the Carolingian basilica. He then constructed a cathedral in the Romanesque style of architecture. That cathedral burned to the ground in 1176 because at that time the naves were covered with a wooden framework.

After that disaster, bishop Heinrich von Hasenburg decided to construct a new cathedral, to be more beautiful than that of Basel, which was just being finished. Construction of the new cathedral began on the foundations of the preceding structure, and did not end until centuries later. Werner’s cathedral’s crypt, which had not burned, was kept and expanded westwards.





1015年,Werner von Habsburg主教在Carolingian大教堂的廢墟上鋪設了新大教堂的第一塊石頭。然後他建造了羅馬式建築風格的大教堂。那座大教堂於1176年被燒毀,因為當時的中殿被木框架覆蓋。


Construction of the cathedral (1176–1439)
The construction began with the choir and the north transept in a Romanesque style, reminiscent of and actually inspired by the Imperial Cathedrals in its monumentality and height. But in 1225, a team coming from Chartres revolutionized the construction by suggesting a Gothic architecture style. The parts of the nave that had already been begun in Romanesque style were torn down and in order to find money to finish the nave, the Chapter resorted to Indulgences in 1253. The money was kept by the Œuvre Notre-Dame, which also hired architects and stone workers. The influence of the Chartres masters was also felt in the sculptures and statues: the “Pillar of Angels” (Pilier des anges), a representation of the Last Judgment on a pillar in the southern transept, facing the Astronomical clock, owes to their expressive style.
Like the city of Strasbourg, the cathedral connects German and French cultural influences, while the eastern structures, e.g. the choir and south portal, still have very Romanesque features, with more emphasis placed on walls than on windows.
Above all, the famous west front, decorated with thousands of figures, is a masterpiece of the Gothic era. The tower is one of the first to rely substantially on craftsmanship, with the final appearance being one with a high degree of linearity captured in stone. While previous façades were certainly drawn prior to construction, Strasbourg has one of the earliest façades whose construction is inconceivable without prior drawing. Strasbourg and Cologne Cathedral together represent some of the earliest uses of architectural drawing. The work of Professor Robert O. Bork of the University of Iowa suggests that the design of the Strasbourg façade, while seeming almost random in its complexity, can be constructed using a series of rotated octagons.

The north tower, completed in 1439, was the world’s tallest building from 1647 (when the spire of St. Mary’s church, Stralsund burnt down) until 1874 (when the tower of St. Nikolai’s Church in Hamburg was completed). The planned south tower was never built and as a result, with its characteristic asymmetrical form, the cathedral is now the premier landmark of Alsace. One can see 30 kilometers from the observation level, which provides a view of the Rhine banks from the Vosges all the way to the Black Forest. The octagonal tower as it can be seen is the combined work of architects Ulrich Ensingen (shaft) and Johannes Hültz of Cologne (top). Ensingen worked on the cathedral from 1399 to 1419, and Hültz from 1419 to 1439.

In 1505, architect Jakob von Landshut and sculptor Hans von Aachen finished rebuilding the Saint-Lawrence portal (Portail Saint-Laurent) outside the northern transept in a markedly post-Gothic, early-Renaissance style. As with the other portals of the cathedral, most of the statues now to be seen in situ are copies, the originals having been moved to the Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame.

建築開始於合唱團和北部的transept,呈羅馬式風格,讓人聯想到帝國大教堂的紀念性和高度。但是在1225年,一支來自沙特爾的團隊通過暗示哥特式建築風格徹底改變了建築。已經以羅馬式風格開始的教堂中殿的部分被拆除,為了找到錢來完成教堂中殿,該章於1253年使用了贖罪券。這筆錢由NotuvreNotre-Dame保管,也聘請了建築師和石頭工人。沙特爾大師的影響也在雕塑和雕像中得到了體現:“天使之柱”(Pilier des anges),是南方經文中支柱的最後審判的代表,面向天文鐘,歸功於他們的表現力樣式。
最重要的是,著名的西面,裝飾著成千上萬的人物,是哥特時代的傑作。該塔是最先依賴於工藝的塔之一,最終的外觀是具有高度線性的石頭。雖然以前的建築物在建造之前肯定已被繪製,但斯特拉斯堡擁有最早的外牆之一,如果沒有預先繪製,其建築是不可想像的。斯特拉斯堡和科隆大教堂一起代表了建築繪圖的一些最早用途。愛荷華大學Robert O. Bork教授的工作表明,斯特拉斯堡外牆的設計儘管看起來幾乎是隨機的,但可以使用一系列旋轉的八角形物來構建。

北塔建於1439年,是世界上最高的建築,從1647年(聖瑪麗教堂的尖頂,施特拉爾松被燒毀)直到1874年(當時漢堡的聖尼古拉教堂塔完工)。計劃中的南塔從未建成,因此,大教堂以其獨特的不對稱形式,現在是阿爾薩斯的首要地標。人們可以從觀察水平看到30公里,從孚日河一直到黑森林都可以看到萊茵河岸。可以看到的八角形塔樓是建築師Ulrich Ensingen(豎井)和科隆的JohannesHültz(頂部)的聯合作品。 Ensingen從1399年到1419年在大教堂工作,從1419年到1439年在Hültz工作。

1505年,建築師Jakob von Landshut和雕塑家漢斯·馮·亞琛(Hans von Aachen)完成了重建聖勞倫斯門戶(Portail Saint-Laurent)之外的北部橫斷面,以一種明顯的後哥特式早期文藝復興風格。與大教堂的其他門戶一樣,現在可以看到的大部分雕像都是複製品,原件已被移至聖母院博物館(Muséedel’éuvreNotre-Dame)。

Later history

In the late Middle Ages, the city of Strasbourg had managed to liberate itself from the domination of the bishop and to rise to the status of Free Imperial City. The outgoing 15th century was marked by the sermons of Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg and by the emerging Protestant Reformation, represented in Strasbourg by figures such as John Calvin, Martin Bucer and Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck. In 1524, the City Council assigned the cathedral to the Protestant faith, while the building suffered some damage from iconoclastic assaults. In 1539, the world’s first documented Christmas tree was set up inside the Münster. After the annexation of the city by Louis XIV of France, on 30 September 1681, and a mass celebrated in the cathedral on 23 October 1681 in presence of the king and prince-bishop Franz Egon of Fürstenberg, the cathedral was returned to the Catholics and its inside redesigned according to the Catholic liturgy of the Counter-Reformation. In 1682, the choir screen (built in 1252) was broken out to expand the choir towards the nave. Remains of the choir screen are displayed in the Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame and in The Cloisters. The main or high altar, a major work of early Renaissance sculpture, was also demolished that year. Fragments can be seen in the Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame.

A round, Baroque sacristy of modest proportions was added north-east of the northern transept in 1744 by the city’s chief architect Joseph Massol according to plans by Robert de Cotte and between 1772 and 1778 architect Jean-Laurent Goetz surrounded the cathedral by a gallery in early Gothic Revival style in order to reorganise the merchants shops that used to settle around the building (and would do so until 1843).

In April 1794, the Enragés who ruled the city started planning to tear the spire down, on the grounds that it hurt the principle of equality. The tower was saved, however, when in May of the same year citizens of Strasbourg crowned it with a giant tin Phrygian cap of the kind the Enragés themselves wore. This artifact was later kept in the historical collections of the city until they were all destroyed in a massive fire in August 1870. During the Siege of Strasbourg, the cathedral was hit by Prussian artillery and the metal cross on the spire was bent. The crossing domes’s roof was pierced and it was subsequently reconstructed in a grander, Romanesque revival style by the Notre-Dame workshop’s longtime chief architect, Gustave Klotz .

During World War II, the cathedral was seen as a symbol for both warring parties. Adolf Hitler, who visited it on 28 June 1940, intended to transform the church into a “national sanctuary of the German people” or into a monument to the Unknown Soldier; on 1 March 1941, General Leclerc made the “oath of Kufra” (serment de Koufra), stating he would “rest the weapons only when our beautiful colours fly again on Strasbourg’s cathedral”. During that same war, the stained glass was removed in 74 cases and stored in a salt mine near Heilbronn, Germany. After the war, it was returned to the cathedral by the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives section of the United States military.

The cathedral was hit by British and American bombs during air raids on Strasbourg’s center on 11 August 1944, which also heavily damaged the Palais Rohan and the Sainte-Madeleine Church. In 1956, the Council of Europe donated the famous choir window by Max Ingrand, the “Strasbourg Madonna” (see also Flag of Europe Biblical interpretation). Repairs to war damage were completed only in the early 1990s.

In October 1988, when the city celebrated its 2000th anniversary (as the first official mention of Argentoratum dates from 12 BC), pope John Paul II visited and celebrated mass in the cathedral. The bishopric of Strasbourg had been elevated to the rank of archbishopric a few months before, in June 1988.

In 2000, an Al-Qaeda plot to bomb the adjacent Christmas market was prevented by French and German police.


在中世紀晚期,斯特拉斯堡市已經設法從主教的統治中解放出來,併升格為自由皇城的地位。即將離任的15世紀以Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg的佈道和新興的新教改革為標誌,在斯特拉斯堡由John Calvin,Martin Bucer和Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck等人物代表。 1524年,市議會將大教堂分配給了新教徒的信仰,同時該建築受到了反傳統攻擊的一些破壞。 1539年,世界上第一個記載的聖誕樹在明斯特內部建立。在1681年9月30日法國路易十四吞併城市,1681年10月23日在大教堂慶祝,在弗斯滕伯格的國王和王子主教弗朗茲·埃貢的陪同下,大教堂被歸還給了天主教徒。它的內部根據反宗教改革的天主教儀式進行了重新設計。 1682年,合唱團的畫面(建於1252年)被打破,以便將合唱團擴展到教堂中殿。唱詩班畫面的遺跡顯示在巴黎圣母院和迴廊中。主要或高級祭壇是文藝復興早期雕塑的主要作品,當年也被拆除。片段可以在巴黎圣母院博物館看到。

1744年,根據Robert de Cotte的計劃,1772年至1778年間,建築師Jean-Laurent Goetz在一座畫廊中包圍了大教堂,由城市的首席建築師Joseph Massol在北部橫斷面的東北部增加了一個圓形的巴洛克式聖器收藏室。早期的哥特式複興風格,以重新組織過去常常在建築物周圍定居的商店(直到1843年才會這樣做)。

1794年4月,統治城市的恩拉格斯開始計劃拆除尖頂,因為它損害了平等原則。然而,在同年5月,斯特拉斯堡的公民用一個巨大的錫金屬帽子加蓋它,就像恩拉格斯自己所穿的那樣。這件神器後來保存在城市的歷史藏品中,直到1870年8月在大火中被摧毀。在斯特拉斯堡圍城期間,大教堂被普魯士大砲擊中,尖頂上的金屬十字架彎曲。交叉圓頂的屋頂被刺穿,隨後由Notre-Dame工作室的長期首席建築師Gustave Klotz以宏偉的羅馬式複興風格重建。

在第二次世界大戰期間,大教堂被視為交戰雙方的象徵。阿道夫·希特勒於1940年6月28日訪問過它,其目的是將教堂改造成“德國人民的國家避難所”或者成為無名戰士的紀念碑; 1941年3月1日,Leclerc將軍發表了“庫夫拉誓言”(serment de Koufra),聲稱只有當我們美麗的色彩再次飛到斯特拉斯堡的大教堂時才會“停下武器”。在同一場戰爭期間,74個案例中的彩色玻璃被移除並儲存在德國海爾布隆附近的鹽礦中。戰爭結束後,它被美國軍隊的紀念碑,美術和檔案部門送回大教堂。

1944年8月11日,在斯特拉斯堡市中心的空襲中,大教堂遭到了英國和美國的炸彈襲擊,這也嚴重損壞了羅漢宮和聖馬德琳教堂。 1956年,歐洲委員會捐贈了Max Stegrand著名的合唱團窗口,即“斯特拉斯堡麥當娜”(參見歐洲國旗的聖經解釋)。戰爭損壞修復工作僅在20世紀90年代初完成。

1988年10月,當這個城市慶祝其成立2000週年時(作為第一次正式提到Argentoratum的日期從公元前12年開始),教皇約翰保羅二世參觀並在大教堂裡慶祝彌撒。 1988年6月,斯特拉斯堡的主教在幾個月前被提升到了大主教的級別。


Protestant and Revolutionary iconoclasm, the war periods of 1681, 1870 and 1940–1944 as well as changes in taste and liturgy have taken a toll on some of Strasbourg Cathedral’s most outstanding features such as the choir screen of 1252 and the successive high altars (ca. 1500 and 1682), but many treasures remain inside the building; others, or fragments of them, being displayed in the Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame.

The outstanding elements are:
– Stained glass windows, mostly 14th century, some late 12th century (northern transept) and 13th century (see also below, Emperor Windows), some 20th century (southern transept, choir). Stained glass windows from the former Dominican Church, destroyed in 1870, in the Chapelle Saint-Laurent and Chapelle Saint-André.
– Tombstone of Conrad de Lichtenberg in the Chapelle Saint-Jean-Baptiste, ca. 1300. Facing it, monument to a canon by Nikolaus Gerhaert (1464).
– Richly ornate baptismal font by Jost Dotzinger in the northern transept, 1443
– Richly ornate pulpit by Hans Hammer, north-east of the central nave, 1486
– Life-sized group of sculptures “Christ on the Mount of Olives” in the northern transept, facing the baptismal font (previously in the Église Saint-Thomas), 1498; the cross towering above it is from 1825
– Suspended pipe organ on the north side of the central nave (Organ case of 1385, 1491; mechanism and registers by Alfred Kern, 1981)
– Choir pipe organ, north side of the choir, Joseph Merklin, 1878
– Crypt pipe organ, 1998
– Busts of Apostles from the high altar of 1682 along the semi-circular wall closing the choir, wood, 17th century
– Tapestries “Life of Mary”, Paris, 17th century, acquired by the cathedral’s chapter in the 18th century
– Altars in the chapels (15th–19th centuries); large Baroque altar of 1698 (structure) and 1776 (paintings) in the Chapelle Saint-Laurent

1681年,1870年和1940年至1944年的戰爭時期的新教和革命的偶像破壞,以及品味和禮儀的變化,對斯特拉斯堡大教堂的一些最傑出的特徵造成了影響,如1252的合唱畫面和連續的高祭壇(ca 1500和1682年),但建築物內仍留有許多寶藏;在巴黎圣母院博物館展出的其他人或其片段。

– 彩色玻璃窗,大多是14世紀,有些是12世紀晚期(北部的橫斷面)和13世紀(見下文,皇帝窗戶),大約20世紀(南部的橫斷面,合唱團)。前多米尼加教堂的彩色玻璃窗於1870年在Chapelle Saint-Laurent和Chapelle Saint-André被毀。
– Chapelle Saint-Jean-Baptiste的Conrad de Lichtenberg的墓碑,約。 1300.面對它,Nikolaus Gerhaert(1464)的正典紀念碑。
– 1443年,Jost Dotzinger在北部的橫斷面上用華麗的洗禮字體
– 1486年,在中央教堂中東北的漢斯·哈默(Hans Hammer)的華麗講壇上
– 真人大小的雕塑“橄欖山上的基督”在北部的橫斷面,面對洗禮的字體(以前在Église聖托馬斯),1498年;高於它的十字架是從1825年開始的
– 中央教堂中殿北側的懸吊管風琴(1385,1491的器官案例; Alfred Kern的機制和登記,1981年)
– 唱詩班管風琴,合唱團北側,約瑟夫·默克林,1878年
– 地穴管風琴,1998年
– 1682年高壇上的使徒半身像沿著半圓形的牆壁關閉合唱團,木材,17世紀
– 掛毯“瑪麗的生活”,17世紀的巴黎,由18世紀的大教堂章節獲得
– 教堂中的祭壇(15-19世紀); 1698年(結構)的大型巴洛克式祭壇和Chapelle Saint-Laurent的1776年(繪畫)


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