Kuthodaw Pagoda 固都陶塔寺
Kuthodaw Pagoda (Burmese: ကုသိုလ်တော်ဘုရား, pronounced [kṵðòdɔ̀ pʰəjá]; literally Royal Merit, and formally titled Mahalawka Marazein မဟာလောကမာရဇိန်စေတီ) is a Buddhist stupa, located in Mandalay, Burma (Myanmar), that contains the world’s largest book. It lies at the foot of Mandalay Hill and was built during the reign of King Mindon. The stupa itself, which is gilded above its terraces, is 188 feet (57 m) high, and is modelled after the Shwezigon Pagoda at Nyaung-U near Bagan. In the grounds of the pagoda are 729 kyauksa gu or stone-inscription caves, each containing a marble slab inscribed on both sides with a page of text from the Tripitaka, the entire Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.
Kuthodaw Pagoda（緬甸語：ကုသိုလ်တော်ဘုရား，發音為[kṵðòdɔpʰəjá];字面意思是Royal Merit，正式名稱為Mahalawka Marazeinမဟာလောကမာဇိန်စေတီis）是佛教佛塔，位於緬甸緬甸曼德勒，其中包含世界上最大的書籍。 它位於曼德勒山腳下，建於Mindon國王統治時期。 佛塔本身在其梯田上方鍍金，高188英尺（57米），仿照蒲甘附近的Nyaung-U的Shwezigon寶塔。 在寶塔的地面上有729 kyauksa gu或石碑洞穴，每個洞穴都有一塊大理石板，兩面刻有一張來自大藏經的文字，整個巴黎小佛教的巴利經典。
Geographic coordinates:22.004712°N 96.112902°ECoordinates: 22.004712°N 96.112902°E
Founder:King Mindon Min
Completed:May 4, 1868; 150 years ago
地理坐標：22.004712°N 96.112902°ECoordinates：22.004712°N 96.112902°E
Mindon Min had the pagoda built as part of the traditional foundations of the new royal city of Mandalay in 1857. He was later to convene the Fifth Buddhist Synod in 1871, but wanted to leave a great work of merit by having the Tipitaka set in stone for posterity, meant to last five millennia after the Buddha. Construction began in 1860, its hti (umbrella or crown) mounted on 19 July 1862, and the inscriptions were laid open to the public on 4 May 1868. They were arranged in neat rows within three enclosures, 42 in the first, 168 in the middle and 519 in the third. One more stands at the southeast corner of the first enclosure making it 730, and this stone records how it all came into being. Thirty four brick zayats (rest houses) stood all around except on the east side of the pagoda.
The main entrance is from the south through massive but open teak doors ornately carved with floral designs, scrolls, and Deva Nats. It is a covered approach or saungdan as in most Burmese pagodas with frescoes under the roof. Between the rows of stone-inscription stupas grow mature star flower trees (Mimusops elengi) that emanate a jasmine-like fragrance to the entire complex. Burmese families may be seen having a picnic in the cool shade under these trees, picking the flowers to make star flower chains for the Buddha or to wear in their hair, or the children playing hide and seek among the rows of stupas. On the southwest inner terrace is one very old tree believed to be 250 years old, its low spreading boughs propped up by supports.
主要入口是從南部通過巨大但開放的柚木門，其中雕刻有花卉圖案，捲軸和Deva Nats。它是一種有蓋的方法或沙灘，就像大多數緬甸寶塔一樣，屋頂下有壁畫。在成排的石刻佛塔之間生長成熟的星花樹（Mimusops elengi），散發出茉莉花般的香氣，整個建築群。可以看到緬甸家庭在這些樹下涼爽的陰涼處野餐，挑選花朵為佛陀製作星形花鍊或戴在頭髮上，或者孩子們在一排排佛塔中玩捉迷藏。在西南的內部露台上有一棵非常古老的樹，據信是250年曆史，它的低蔓延的樹枝由支撐支撐。
Annexation and desecration
After the annexation of Mandalay by the British in 1885, the walled city with Mandalay Palace became Fort Dufferin, and troops were billeted all around Mandalay Hill in the monasteries, temples and pagodas. They became off-limits to the public and Burmese were no longer allowed to visit their religious sites. One revenue surveyor called U Aung Ban then came up with the idea of appealing direct to Queen Victoria since she had promised to respect all religions practised by her subjects. To their amazement and great joy the British queen promptly ordered the withdrawal of all her troops from religious precincts in 1890. This however turned to great sadness when they found that the pagoda had been looted from the hti, left lying on the ground stripped of its bells, gold, silver, diamonds, rubies and other precious stones, down to the Italian marble tiles from its terraces. The zayats lay in utter ruin and the bricks had been used to build a road for the troops. All the brass bells from all the kyauksa gu stupas were gone, 9 on each making it 6570 in total. The gold ink from the letters as well as the sides and top of each marble slab had also disappeared. All the biloos along the corridors had lost their heads, and the marble eyes and claws from the masonry chinthes gone.
1885年英國人吞併曼德勒之後，曼德勒宮的城牆變成了達弗林堡，在修道院，寺廟和寶塔的曼德勒山周圍都有軍隊。他們成了公眾的禁區，緬甸人不再被允許訪問他們的宗教場所。一位名叫U Aung Ban的收入調查員隨後提出了直接向維多利亞女王提出上訴的想法，因為她承諾尊重她所研究的所有宗教。令他們感到驚訝和高興的是，英國女王在1890年迅速下令將她的所有部隊從宗教區撤出。然而，當他們發現這座寶塔被從劫掠中掠奪，留在地上被剝奪了它時，他們感到非常悲傷。鐘聲，金，銀，鑽石，紅寶石和其他寶石，從其露台到意大利大理石瓷磚。 zayats完全廢墟，磚被用來為部隊建造一條道路。來自所有kyauksa gu stupas的所有銅鈴都消失了，每個9個，共計6570個。來自字母以及每塊大理石板的側面和頂部的金色墨水也消失了。沿著走廊的所有的biloos都失去了他們的頭，大理石的眼睛和爪子從磚石上掉了下來。
In 1892, a committee of senior monks, members of the royal family and former officers of the king, including Atumashi Sayadaw (the Abbot of Atumashi Monastery), Kinwon Min Gyi U Kaung (chancellor), Hleithin Atwinwun (minister of the royal fleet), Yaunghwe Saopha Sir Saw Maung and Mobyè Sitkè (a general of the royal army), was formed to start restoration works with the help and donations from the families of the original donors according to custom and also from the public.
It was the sitkè who asked permission from the senior monks to plant the hkayei star flower trees as well as some meze (Madhuca longifolia) trees. Gold letters were replaced with black ink which made it easier to read. The metal htis of the kyauksa gus were replaced with stone paid for by members of the royal family (155), former officers of the royal army (58), Shan Saophas and Myosas (102), and public donations (414). In 1913 Sir Po Tha, a rice trader of Rangoon, had the pagoda repaired and regilded. The next year, the Society of Pitaka Stone Inscriptions gave an iron gate to the south left open as the carved wooden panels had been destroyed by the soldiers. The west gate was donated by the famous zat mintha (theatre performer) U Po Sein the following year, and the north and east gates by the children and grandchildren of King Mindon in 1932. In 1919 the hermit U Khandi led the rebuilding of the south and west saungdans (covered approaches).
1892年，一個高級僧侶委員會，王室成員和國王的前官員，包括Atumashi Sayadaw（Atumashi修道院的住持），Kinwon Min Gyi U Kaung（財政大臣），Hleithin Atwinwun（皇家艦隊部長） ，Yaunghwe Saopha Sir Saw Maung和MobyèSitkè（皇家軍隊將軍）成立，根據習俗和公眾的幫助和原始捐贈者家屬的捐贈開始修復工程。
正是sitkè要求高級僧侶允許種植hkayei星花樹以及一些meze（Madhuca longifolia）樹。金色字母被黑色墨水取代，使其更容易閱讀。 kyauksa gus的金屬htis被皇室成員（155），皇家軍隊前軍官（58），Shan Saophas和Myosas（102）以及公共捐贈（414）所支付的石頭取代。 1913年，仰光大米貿易商Po Tha先生對寶塔進行了修復和修復。第二年，Pitaka Stone Inscriptions協會在南面打開了一扇鐵門，因為雕刻的木板已被士兵摧毀。西門是由著名的zat mintha（劇院表演者）U Po Sein在第二年捐贈的，以及北門和東門由1932年的Mindon國王的子孫捐贈。1919年，隱士U Khandi帶領重建南部和西桑丹（覆蓋的方法）。
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