Shaghai World Financial Center 上海環球金融中心

The Shanghai World Financial Center (SWFC; Chinese: 上海环球金融中心) is a supertall skyscraper located in the Pudong district of Shanghai. It was designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox and developed by the Mori Building Company, with Leslie E. Robertson Associates as its structural engineer and China State Construction Engineering Corp and Shanghai Construction (Group) General Co. as its main contractor. It is a mixed-use skyscraper, consisting of offices, hotels, conference rooms, observation decks, and ground-floor shopping malls. Park Hyatt Shanghai is the tower’s hotel component, comprising 174 rooms and suites occupying the 79th to the 93rd floors, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world. It is now the third-highest hotel in the world after the Ritz-Carlton, Hong Kong, which occupies floors 102 to 118 of the International Commerce Centre.

On 14 September 2007, the skyscraper was topped out and is 492 metres (1,614.2 ft), making it the 9th tallest building in the world and the fourth tallest structure in Mainland China. The SWFC opened to the public on 28 August 2008, with its observation deck opening on 30 August. The observation deck offers views from 474 m (1,555 ft) above ground level.

The SWFC has been lauded for its design, and in 2008 it was named by architects as the year’s best-completed skyscraper. In 2013, the SWFC was exceeded in height by the adjacent Shanghai Tower, which is China’s tallest structure as of 2017. Together, The Shanghai World Financial Center, The Shanghai Tower and The Jin Mao Tower form the world’s first adjacent grouping of three supertall skyscrapers.

上海環球金融中心(SWFC;中文:上海環球金融中心)位於上海浦東新區,是一座超高層建築。它由Kohn Pedersen Fox設計,由Mori Building Company開發,Leslie E. Robertson Associates作為其結構工程師,中國建築工程總公司和上海建築(集團)總公司作為其主要承包商。這是一座綜合性摩天大樓,包括辦公室,酒店,會議室,觀景台和底層商場。上海柏悅酒店是塔樓的酒店組成部分,包括174間客房和套房,分別位於第79層至第93層,在建成時是世界上最高的酒店。它現在是繼香港麗思卡爾頓酒店之後的世界第三高酒店,佔據國際商務中心102至118層。

2007年9月14日,這座摩天大樓高達492米(1,614.2英尺),成為世界第九高樓和中國大陸第四高樓。 SWFC於2008年8月28日向公眾開放,其觀察台於8月30日開放。觀景台的地面高度為474米(1,555英尺)。


Type:Office, hotel, museum, observation, parking garage, retail
Architectural style:Neo-Futurism
Location:100 Century Avenue, Pudong, Shanghai, China
Coordinates:31°14′12″N 121°30′10″ECoordinates: 31°14′12″N 121°30′10″E
Construction started:27 August 1997
Opening:28 August 2008
Owner:Shanghai World Financial Center Co., Ltd.
Architectural: 492.0 m (1,614.2 ft)
Tip:494.3 m (1,621.7 ft)
Roof:487.4 m (1,599.1 ft)
Top floor:474.0 m (1,555.1 ft)
Observatory:474 m (1,555.1 ft)
Technical details
Floor count:101 (3 below ground)
Floor area:381,600 m2 (4,107,500 sq ft)
Lifts/elevators:91 + 33 escalators
Design and construction
Architect:Kohn Pedersen Fox
Developer:Mori Building Co.
Structural engineer:Leslie E. Robertson Associates RLLP
Main contractor:China State Construction Engineering Corp and Shanghai Construction (Group) General Co.

坐標:31°14’12“N 121°30’10”ECoordinates:31°14’12“N 121°30’10”E
電梯/電梯:91 + 33自動扶梯
建築師:Kohn Pedersen Fox
開發者:Mori Building Co.
結構工程師:Leslie E. Robertson Associates RLLP


The top of the building, with the aperture clearly visible.
The most distinctive feature of the SWFC’s design is the trapezoid aperture at the peak. The original design specified a circular aperture, 46 m (151 ft) in diameter, to reduce the stresses of wind pressure and to reference the Chinese mythological depiction of the sky as a circle. It also resembled a Chinese moon gate due to its circular form in Chinese architecture. However, this initial design began facing protests from some Chinese, including the mayor of Shanghai, Chen Liangyu, who considered it too similar to the rising sun design of the Japanese flag. Pedersen then suggested that a bridge be placed at the bottom of the aperture to make it less circular. On 18 October 2005, KPF submitted an alternative design to Mori Building and a trapezoidal hole replaced the circle at the top of the tower, which in addition to changing the controversial design, would also be cheaper and easier to implement, according to the architects. Foreigners and Chinese alike informally refer to the building as “the bottle opener”. Metal replicas of the building that function as actual bottle openers are sold in the tower’s gift shop.

The tower features three separate observation decks which constitute the floors above and below the aperture opening. The height of the lowest observation deck, located on the 94th floor, is 423 m (1,388 ft); the second, on the 97th floor, is at a height of 439 m (1,440 ft); and the highest, on the 100th floor, is 474 m (1,555 ft) high.

The skyscraper’s roof height is set at 492 metres (1,614 ft), and was at one point the highest roof in the world. Before construction on the roof was completed, the SWFC’s total height was scheduled to be 509.2 m (1,671 ft) so that it would exceed the height of the Taipei 101, but a height limit was imposed, allowing the roof to reach a maximum height of 492 metres. Architect William Pedersen and developer Minoru Mori resisted suggestions to add a spire that would surpass that of Taipei 101 and perhaps One World Trade Center, calling the SWFC a “broad-shouldered building”. The SWFC boasts a gross floor area of more than 377,300 m2 (4,061,200 sq ft), 31 elevators, and 33 escalators.


SWFC設計最顯著的特徵是峰頂處的梯形孔。原始設計規定了一個圓形孔徑,直徑46米(151英尺),以減少風壓的壓力,並參考中國神話中描繪的天空為圓形。由於其在中國建築中的圓形形態,它也像中國的月亮門。然而,這一初步設計開始面臨一些中國人的抗議,其中包括上海市市長陳良宇,他認為這與日本國旗的太陽升起設計過於相似。 Pedersen隨後建議在孔的底部放置一個橋,使其不太圓。 2005年10月18日,KPF向森大廈提交了另一種設計,一個梯形孔取代了塔頂的圓形,除了改變有爭議的設計之外,還可以更便宜,更容易實施,建築師說。外國人和中國人都非正式地稱這座建築為“開瓶器”。作為實際開瓶器的建築物的金屬複製品在塔的禮品店出售。


摩天大樓的屋頂高度設置為492米(1,614英尺),是世界上最高的屋頂。在屋頂施工完成之前,SWFC的總高度預定為509.2米(1,671英尺),因此它將超過台北101的高度,但是施加了高度限制,允許屋頂達到最大高度492米。建築師威廉·佩德森(William Pedersen)和開發商Minoru Mori拒絕建議增加超過台北101和世貿中心的尖頂,稱SWFC為“寬肩樓”。 SWFC的總建築面積超過377,300平方米(4,061,200平方英尺),31部電梯和33部自動扶梯。

Structural efficiency
The tower’s trapezoid aperture is made up of structural steel and reinforced concrete. A large number of forces, such as wind loads, the people in the building and heavy equipment housed in the building, act on the SWFC’s structure. These compressive and bending forces are carried down to the ground by the diagonal-braced frame (with added outrigger trusses). The design employs an effective use of material, because it decreases the thickness of the outer core shear walls and the weight of the structural steel in the perimeter walls.

塔的梯形孔由結構鋼和鋼筋混凝土構成。 大量的力量,例如風荷載,建築物內的人員和建築物內的重型設備,作用於SWFC的結構。 這些壓縮和彎曲力通過對角支撐框架(帶有附加的支腿桁架)向下傳遞到地面。 該設計採用了材料的有效利用,因為它減小了外芯剪力牆的厚度和周邊壁中結構鋼的重量。

FROM:Shanghai World Financial Center observation deck Shanghai China


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