Santa Maria Della Salute 安康聖母聖殿
Location Venice, Italy
Geographic coordinates 45 ° 25’51 “N 12 ° 20’04” ECoordinates: 45 ° 25’51 “N 12 ° 20’04” E
Affiliation Roman Catholic
Province Archdiocese of Venice
Year consecrated 1681
Architect (s) Baldassare Longhena
Architectural type Church
Architectural style Baroque
Length 70 meters (230 ft)
Width 47 meters (154 ft)
Materials Istrian stone, marmorino
地址： Dorsoduro, 1, 30123 Venezia VE, 意大利
落成： 1687 年
建築師： Baldassare Longhena
安康聖母大殿（Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute），簡稱為「Salute」，是威尼斯的著名教堂，位於威尼斯大運河和威尼斯潟湖的聖馬可內港之間風景優美的狹長的尖角地帶，從水路進入聖馬可廣場者都可看見。它擁有 次級聖殿的地位，其富於裝飾性的獨特外形和地理位置使之成為義大利最上鏡的教堂之一。
Dorsoduro, 1, 30123 Venezia VE, 意大利
Santa Maria della Salute (English: Saint Mary of Health), commonly known simply as the Salute, is a Roman Catholic church and minor basilica located at Punta della Dogana in the Dorsoduro sestiere of the city of Venice, Italy.
It stands on the narrow finger of Punta della Dogana, between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal, at the Bacino di San Marco, making the church visible when entering the Piazza San Marco from the water. The Salute is part of the parish of the Gesuati and is the most recent of the so-called plague churches.
In 1630, Venice experienced an unusually devastating outbreak of the plague. As a votive offering for the city’s deliverance from the pestilence, the Republic of Venice vowed to build and dedicate a church to Our Lady of Health (or of Deliverance, Italian: Salute). The church was designed in the then fashionable baroque style by Baldassare Longhena, who studied under the architect Vincenzo Scamozzi. Construction began in 1631. Most of the objects of art housed in the church bear references to the Black Death.
The dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venice skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring artists like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent, and the Venetian artist Francesco Guardi.
Santa Maria della Salute（英文：Saint Mary of Health），簡稱為“致敬”（Salute），是位於意大利威尼斯市Dorsoduro區的Punta della Dogana的一座羅馬天主教堂和一座小教堂。
它位於大運河和Giudecca運河之間的Punta della Dogana狹窄的手指處，在Bacino di San Marco，使得教堂從水中進入聖馬可廣場時可見。敬禮是基蘇提教區的一部分，也是最近所謂的瘟疫教會。
1630年，威尼斯經歷了一場異常災難性的瘟疫爆發。威尼斯共和國為了拯救這個城市的瘟疫而獻上了一份奉獻，威斯康星共和國誓言要建造一座教堂來獻給我們的聖母（意大利人：致敬）。教堂的設計是當時由建築師文森佐·斯卡莫齊（Vincenzo Scamozzi）研究的巴爾達薩爾·鮑爾薩斯（Baldassare Longhena）設計的巴洛克風格。建築始於1631年。教堂內大部分的藝術品都與黑死病有關。
致敬的圓頂是威尼斯天際線的重要組成部分，很快成為城市的代表，鼓舞人心的藝術家如卡納萊托，J. M. W. Turner，John Singer Sargent和威尼斯藝術家Francesco Guardi。
360 VIDEO: INSIDE BASILICA OF SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE, VENICE, ITALY
From: Sygic Travel
Beginning in the summer of 1630, a wave of the plague assaulted Venice, and until 1631 killed nearly a third of the population. In the city, 46,000 people died whilst in the lagoons the number was far higher, some 94,000.Repeated displays of the sacrament, as well as prayers and processions to churches dedicated to San Rocco and San Lorenzo Giustiniani had failed to stem the epidemic. Echoing the architectural response to a prior assault of the plague (1575–76), when Palladio was asked to design the Redentore church, the Venetian Senate on October 22, 1630, decreed that a new church would be built. It was not to be dedicated to a mere “plague” or patron saint, but to the Virgin Mary, who for many reasons was thought to be a protector of the Republic.
Santa Maria della Salute on the Grand Canal
It was also decided that the Senate would visit the church each year. On November 21 the Feast of the Presentation of the Virgin, known as the Festa della Madonna della Salute, the city’s officials parade from San Marco to the Salute for a service in gratitude for deliverance from the plague is celebrated. This involved crossing the Grand Canal on a specially constructed pontoon bridge and is still a major event in Venice.
The desire to create a suitable monument at a place that allows for easy processional access from Piazza San Marco led senators to select the present site from among eight potential locations. The location was chosen partially due to its relationship to San Giorgio, San Marco, and Il Redentore, with which it forms an arc. The Salute, emblematic of the city’s piety, stands adjacent to the rusticated single story customs house or Dogana da Mar, the emblem of its maritime commerce, and near the civic center of the city. A dispute with the patriarch, owner of the church and seminary at the site, was resolved, and razing of some of the buildings began by 1631. Likely, the diplomat Paolo Sarpi and Doge Nicolo Contarini shared the intent to link the church to an order less closely associated with the patriarchate, and ultimately the Somascan Fathers, an order founded near Bergamo by a Venetian nobleman Jerome Emiliani, were invited to administer the church.
High Altar with the holy icon of Panagia Mesopantitisa
A competition was held to design the building. Of the eleven submissions (including designs by Alessandro Varotari, Matteo Ignoli, and Berteo Belli), only two were chosen for the final round. The architect Baldassare Longhena was selected to design the new church. It was finally completed in 1681 the year before Longhena’s death. The other design to make it to the final round was by Antonio Smeraldi (il Fracao) and Zambattista Rubertini. Of the proposals still extant, Belli’s and Smeraldi’s original plans were conventional counter-reformation linear churches, resembling Palladio’s Redentore and San Giorgio Maggiore, while Varotari’s was a sketchy geometrical abstraction. Longhena’s proposal was a concrete architectural plan, detailing the structure and costs. He wrote:
I have created a church in the form of a rotunda, a work of new invention, not built in Venice, a work very worthy and desired by many. This church, having the mystery of its dedication, being dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, made me think, with what little talent God has bestowed upon me of building the church in the … shape of a crown.
Later in a memorandum, he wrote: “Firstly, it is a virgin work, never before seen, curious, worthy and beautiful, made in the form of a round monument that has never been seen, nor ever before invented, neither altogether, nor in part, in other churches in this most serene city, just as my competitor (il Fracao) has done for his own advantage, being poor in invention.”
The Salute, while novel in many ways, still shows the influence of Palladian classicism and the domes of Venice. The Venetian Senate voted 66 in favor, 29 against with 2 abstentions to authorize the designs of the 26-year-old Longhena. While Longhena saw the structure as crown-like, the decorative circular building makes it seem more like a reliquary, a ciborium, and embroidered inverted chalice that shelters the city’s piety.
希望在聖馬可廣場容易遊行的地方創造一個合適的紀念碑，導致參議員從八個潛在的地點中選擇現在的地點。由於它與聖喬治（San Giorgio），聖馬可（San Marco）和伊爾·雷迪多（Il Redentore）的關係，這個地點被部分選中，形成一個圓弧。象徵著這座城市虔誠之禮的禮炮站在毗鄰單一故事的海關或海上商業標誌Dogana da Mar附近，並靠近城市的市中心。與教區主教，教會和神學院的老闆之間的糾紛已經解決了，一些建築物在1631年開始被夷為平地。外交官保羅·薩爾皮（Paolo Sarpi）和總督尼古洛·康塔里尼（Nicolo Contarini）也有意將教會與命令聯繫起來與宗主教關係不那麼緊密，最終由聖尼古拉德貴族杰羅姆·艾米利亞尼（Jerome Emiliani）在貝加莫（Bergamo）附近成立的索馬森神父（Somascan Fathers）被邀請來管理教堂。
舉行比賽設計大廈。在十一份意見書中（包括亞歷山德羅·瓦羅塔里（Alessandro Varotari），馬泰奧·伊莫利（Matteo Ignoli）和貝爾泰·貝利（Berteo Belli）的設計），最後一輪中只有兩人被選中。建築師Baldassare Longhena被選中設計新教堂。最終在1681年隆基納去世前完成了。最後一輪的另一個設計是Antonio Smeraldi（Il Fracao）和Zambattista Rubertini。在仍然存在的建議中，貝利和斯梅拉爾達的原始計劃是傳統的反改革線性教會，類似帕拉迪奧的Redentore和San Giorgio Maggiore，而Varotari的是一個粗略的幾何抽象。 Longhena的提議是一個具體的建築計劃，詳細的結構和成本。他寫了：
TRAVEL ITALY – VISITING THE SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE IN VENICE
he Salute is a vast, octagonal building with two domes and a pair of picturesque bell-towers at the back. Built on a platform made of 1,000,000 wooden piles, it is constructed of Istrian stone and marmorino (brick covered with marble dust). At the apex of the pediment stands a statue of the Virgin Mary who presides over the church which was erected in her honour. The façade is decorated with figures of Saint George, Saint Theodore, the Evangelists, the Prophets, Judith with the head of Holofernes.
他是一座巨大的八角形建築，有兩個圓頂和一對風景如畫的鐘樓。 建在由100萬根木樁製成的平台上，由伊斯特拉石和馬莫里諾（大理石灰土覆蓋的磚）建成。 在山前的頂端，立著一座聖母瑪利亞的雕像，主持著她為紀念而豎起的教堂。 立面裝飾著聖喬治，圣西奧多，福音傳教士，先知，朱迪思與Holofernes的頭像。
BASILIQUE SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE, VENISE, ITALIE
Santa Maria della Salute, hanging lantern
While its external decoration and location capture the eye, the internal design itself is quite remarkable. The octagonal church, while ringed by a classic vocabulary, hearkens to Byzantine designs such as the Basilica of San Vitale. The interior has its architectural elements demarcated by the coloration of the material, and the central nave with its ring of saints atop a balustrade is a novel design. It is full of Marian symbolism – the great dome represents her crown, the cavernous interior her womb, the eight sides the eight points on her symbolic star.
The interior is octagonal with eight radiating chapels on the outer row. The three altars to the right of the main entrance are decorated with scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary, patroness of the church, by Luca Giordano: The Presentation of Our Lady in the Temple, Assumption of Our Lady, and Nativity of Our Lady.The third altar to the left of the entrance hosts a painting by Titian titled The Descent of the Holy Ghost.
The Baroque high altar arrangement, designed by Longhena himself, shelters an iconic Byzantine Madonna and Child of the 12th or 13th century, known as Panagia Mesopantitissa in Greek (“Madonna the mediator” or “Madonna the negotiator”) and came from Candia in 1669 after the fall of the city to the Ottomans. The statuary group at the high altar, depicting The Queen of Heaven expelling the Plague (1670) is a theatrical Baroque masterpiece by the Flemish sculptor Josse de Corte. It originally held Alessandro Varotari’s painting of the Virgin holding a church that the painter submitted with his architectural proposal.
Tintoretto contributed Marriage at Cana in the great sacristy, which includes a self-portrait. The most represented artist included in the church is Titian, who painted St. Mark Enthroned with Saints Cosmas, Damian, Sebastian and Roch, the altarpiece of the sacristy, as well as ceiling paintings of David and Goliath, Abraham and Isaac and Cain and Abel, and eight tondi of the eight Doctors of the Church and the Evangelists, all in the great sacristy, and Pentecost in the nave.
其外部裝飾和位置捕捉的眼睛，內部設計本身是非常顯著的。八角形的教堂，雖然經典的詞彙環繞，拜訪了拜占庭式的設計，如聖維塔利亞大教堂。內部的建築元素以物質的色彩為標誌，中央殿堂與聖人環在欄杆頂部是一種新穎的設計。它充滿了瑪麗安的象徵意義 – 偉大的圓頂代表了她的皇冠，她的子宮裡有洞穴的內部，八面八方的象徵性明星。
巴洛克式的高壇安排，由Longhena自己設計，庇護一個標誌性的拜占庭麥當娜和十二或十三世紀的兒童，在希臘被稱為Panagia Mesopantitissa （“麥當娜調解員”或“麥當娜談判者”），並從坎迪亞在1669年城市倒塌到奧斯曼之後。高壇上的雕像群描繪了驅逐瘟疫的天堂女王（1670），是佛蘭芒雕塑家Josse de Corte的巴洛克式的傑作。它最初舉行亞歷山德羅Varotari的維爾京的繪畫舉行一個教會，畫家提交他的建築提案。
VENICE, ITALY: GRAND CANAL AND LA SALUTE CHURCH
From: Rick Steves’ Europe
Dogana and Santa Maria della Salute by J. M. W. Turner (1843)
The dome of the Salute was an important addition to the Venetian skyline and soon became emblematic of the city, inspiring painters like Canaletto, J. M. W. Turner, John Singer Sargent, Francesco Guardi, and the Serbian poet Laza Kostić to write a poem of the same title.
The church had a large influence on contemporary architects immediately after its completion. The structures modeled after the church include the shrine in Gostyń, built by Jerzy Catenazzi, Jan Catenazzi, and Pompeo Ferrari between 1675-1728, perhaps according to the original design by Baldassarre Longhena.
In 1959, the church was the subject of a design by John Piper, later adapted as a textile design by Arthur Sanderson & Sons Ltd.
The plans of the Rotunda of Xewkija in Gozo, Malta were based on Santa Maria della Salute, but on a larger scale.
J. M. W. W. Turner（1843）的Dogana和Santa Maria della Salute
教會在完成後立即對當代建築師有很大的影響。 模仿教堂的建築包括Gostyń的神殿，由Jerzy Catenazzi，Jan Catenazzi和Pompeo Ferrari於1675 – 1728年之間建造，也許根據Baldassarre Longhena的原始設計。
1959年，教堂被約翰·派珀（John Piper）設計，後來被亞瑟·桑德森父子（Arthur Sanderson＆Sons Ltd.）改編為紡織品設計。
馬耳他戈佐的Xewkija圓形大廳的計劃是以Santa Maria della Salute為基礎的，但規模較大。
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