Neuschwanstein Castle 新天鵝堡
Neuschwanstein Castle 新天鵝堡
Architectural style Romanesque Revival
Location Hohenschwangau, Germany
Construction started 5 September 1869
Completed c. 1886 (opened)
Owner Bavarian Palace Department
Design and construction
Architect Eduard Riedel
Civil engineer Eduard Riedel, Georg von Dollmann, Julius Hofmann
Other designers Ludwig II, Christian Jank
土木工程師Eduard Riedel，Georg von Dollmann，Julius Hofmann
其他設計師Ludwig II，Christian Jank
Neuschwanstein Castle (German: Schloss Neuschwanstein, pronounced [nɔʏˈʃvaːnʃtaɪn], English: “New Swanstone Castle”; Southern Bavarian: Schloss Neischwanstoa) is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany. The palace was commissioned by Ludwig II of Bavaria as a retreat and in honour of Richard Wagner. Ludwig paid for the palace out of his personal fortune and by means of extensive borrowing, rather than Bavarian public funds.
The castle was intended as a home for the king, until he died in 1886. It was open to the public shortly after his death. Since then more than 61 million people have visited Neuschwanstein Castle. More than 1.3 million people visit annually, with as many as 6,000 per day in the summer.
新天鵝堡（德語：Schloss Neuschwanstein，發音為[nɔʏʃvaːnʃtaɪn]，英語：“新天鵝堡”;南巴伐利亞語：Schloss Neischwanstoa）是一座19世紀的羅馬式複興宮殿，位於巴伐利亞州西南部Füssen附近的Hohenschwangau村上方的崎嶇山丘上， 德國。 宮殿由巴伐利亞的路德維希二世委託作為撤退和紀念理查德瓦格納。 路德維希以個人財富和廣泛借款而非巴伐利亞公共基金的方式支付了宮殿的費用。
這座城堡的目的是作為國王的家，直到他於1886年去世。它在他去世後不久就向公眾開放。 從那時起，已有超過6100萬人訪問了新天鵝堡。 每年有超過130萬人訪問，夏季每天多達6,000人。
The municipality of Schwangau lies at an elevation of 800 m (2,620 ft) at the southwest border of the German state of Bavaria. Its surroundings are characterized by the transition
between the Alpine foothills in the south (toward the nearby Austrian border) and a hilly landscape in the north that appears flat by comparison.
In the Middle Ages, three castles overlooked the villages. One was called Schwanstein Castle.[nb 1] In 1832, Ludwig’s father King Maximilian II of Bavaria bought its ruins to replace them with the comfortable neo-Gothic palace known as Hohenschwangau Castle. Finished in 1837, the palace became his family’s summer residence, and his elder son Ludwig (born 1845) spent a large part of his childhood here.
Vorderhohenschwangau Castle and Hinterhohenschwangau Castle[nb 2] sat on a rugged hill overlooking Schwanstein Castle, two nearby lakes (Alpsee and Schwansee), and the village. Separated only by a moat, they jointly consisted of a hall, a keep, and a fortified tower house. In the nineteenth century only ruins remained of the twin medieval castles, but those of Hinterhohenschwangau served as a lookout place known as Sylphenturm.
The ruins above the family palace were known to the crown prince from his excursions. He first sketched one of them in his diary in 1859. When the young king came to power in 1864, the construction of a new palace in place of the two ruined castles became the first in his series of palace building projects. Ludwig called the new palace New Hohenschwangau Castle; only after his death was it renamed Neuschwanstein. The confusing result is that Hohenschwangau and Schwanstein have effectively swapped names: Hohenschwangau Castle replaced the ruins of Schwanstein Castle, and Neuschwanstein Castle replaced the ruins of the two Hohenschwangau Castles.
在中世紀，三座城堡忽視了村莊。其中一座被稱為施萬斯坦城堡。[nb 1] 1832年，路德維希的父親巴伐利亞國王馬克西米利安二世購買了它的廢墟，用舒適的新哥特式宮殿Hohenschwangau Castle取而代之。這座宮殿於1837年建成，成為他家的夏宮，他的大兒子路德維希（生於1845年）在這裡度過了他童年的大部分時光。
Inspiration and design
Neuschwanstein embodies both the contemporaneous architectural fashion known as castle romanticism (German: Burgenromantik), and Ludwig II’s immoderate enthusiasm for the operas of Richard Wagner.
In the 19th century, many castles were constructed or reconstructed, often with significant changes to make them more picturesque. Palace-building projects similar to Neuschwanstein had been undertaken earlier in several of the German states and included Hohenschwangau Castle, Lichtenstein Castle, Hohenzollern Castle, and numerous buildings on the River Rhine such as Stolzenfels Castle. The inspiration for the construction of Neuschwanstein came from two journeys in 1867 — one in May to the reconstructed Wartburg near Eisenach, another in July to the Château de Pierrefonds, which Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was transforming from a ruined castle into a historistic palace.[nb 3] Neuschwanstein project drawing (Christian Jank 1869)
The king saw both buildings as representatives of a romantic interpretation of the Middle Ages, as well as the musical mythology of his friend Wagner, whose operas Tannhäuser and Lohengrin had made a lasting impression on him.
In February 1868, Ludwig’s grandfather Ludwig I died, freeing the considerable sums that were previously spent on the abdicated king’s appanage. [nb 4] This allowed Ludwig II to start the architectural project of building a private refuge in the familiar landscape far from the capital Munich, so that he could live out his idea of the Middle Ages.
It is my intention to rebuild the old castle ruin of Hohenschwangau near the Pöllat Gorge in the authentic style of the old German knights’ castles, and I must confess to you that I am looking forward very much to living there one day […]; you know the revered guest I would like to accommodate there; the location is one of the most beautiful to be found, holy and unapproachable, a worthy temple for the divine friend who has brought salvation and true blessing to the world. It will also remind you of “Tannhäuser” (Singers’ Hall with a view of the castle in the background), “Lohengrin'” (castle courtyard, open corridor, path to the chapel) …
— Ludwig II, Letter to Richard Wagner, May 1868
The building design was drafted by the stage designer Christian Jank and realized by the architect Eduard Riedel. For technical reasons, the ruined castles could not be integrated into the plan. Initial ideas for the palace drew stylistically on Nuremberg Castle and envisaged a simple building in place of the old Vorderhohenschwangau Castle, but they were rejected and replaced by increasingly extensive drafts, culminating in a bigger palace modelled on the Wartburg. The king insisted on a detailed plan and on personal approval of each and every draft. Ludwig’s control went so far that the palace has been regarded as his own creation, rather than that of the architects involved.
Whereas contemporary architecture critics derided Neuschwanstein, one of the last big palace building projects of the nineteenth century, as kitsch, Neuschwanstein and Ludwig II’s other buildings are now counted among the major works of European historicism. For financial reasons, a project similar to Neuschwanstein – Falkenstein Castle – never left the planning stages.
The palace can be regarded as typical for nineteenth-century architecture. The shapes of Romanesque (simple geometric figures such as cuboids and semicircular arches), Gothic (upward-pointing lines, slim towers, delicate embellishments) and Byzantine architecture and art (the Throne Hall décor) were mingled in an eclectic fashion and supplemented with 19th-century technical achievements. The Patrona Bavariae and Saint George on the court face of the Palas (main building) are depicted in the local Lüftlmalerei [de] style, a fresco technique typical for Allgäu farmers’ houses, while the unimplemented drafts for the Knights’ House gallery foreshadow elements of Art Nouveau. Characteristic of Neuschwanstein’s design are theatre themes: Christian Jank drew on coulisse drafts from his time as a scenic painter.
The basic style was originally planned to be neo-Gothic but the palace was primarily built in Romanesque style in the end. The operatic themes moved gradually from Tannhäuser and Lohengrin to Parsifal.
在19世紀，許多城堡被建造或重建，經常有重大變化，使它們更加風景如畫。早些時候在德國的幾個州開展了類似於新天鵝堡的宮殿建設項目，其中包括舊天鵝堡，利希滕斯坦城堡，霍亨索倫城堡以及萊茵河上的眾多建築物，如Stolzenfels城堡。建造新天鵝堡的靈感來自於1867年的兩次旅行 – 一次是五月到艾森納赫附近重建的瓦特堡，另一次是7月份到了Pierrefonds城堡，EugèneViollet-le-Duc正在從一座廢墟城堡變成一座歷史悠久的宮殿。[nb 3] 新天鵝堡項目圖（Christian Jank 1869）
1868年2月，路德維希的祖父路德維希一世去世，釋放了以前在退位國王的計劃上花費的大量資金。 [nb 4]這使得路德維希二世能夠在遠離首都慕尼黑的熟悉景觀中開始建造私人避難所的建築項目，這樣他就可以實現他對中世紀的看法。
NEUSCHWANSTEIN CASTLE, GERMANY IN 4K ULTRA HD
The effect of the Neuschwanstein ensemble is highly stylistic, both externally and internally. The king’s influence is apparent throughout, and he took a keen personal interest in the design and decoration. An example can be seen in his comments, or commands, regarding a mural depicting Lohengrin in the Palas; “His Majesty wishes that … the ship be placed further from the shore, that Lohengrin’s neck be less tilted, that the chain from the ship to the swan be of gold and not of roses, and finally that the style of the castle shall be kept medieval.”
The suite of rooms within the Palas contains the Throne Room, Ludwig’s suite, the Singers’ Hall, and the Grotto. The interior and especially the throne room Byzantine-Arab construction resumes to the chapels and churches of the royal Sicilian Norman-Swabian period in Palermo related to the kings of Germany House of Hohenstaufen. Throughout, the design pays homage to the German legends of Lohengrin, the Swan Knight. Hohenschwangau, where Ludwig spent much of his youth, had decorations of these sagas. These themes were taken up in the operas of Richard Wagner. Many rooms bear a border depicting the various operas written by Wagner, including a theater permanently featuring the set of one such play. Many of the interior rooms remain undecorated, with only 14 rooms finished before Ludwig’s death. With the palace under construction at the king’s death, one of the major features of the palace remained unbuilt. A massive keep, which would have formed the highest point and central focus of the ensemble, was planned for the middle of the upper courtyard but was never built, at the decision of the King’s family. The foundation for the keep is visible in the upper courtyard.
Neuschwanstein Castle consists of several individual structures which were erected over a length of 150 metres on the top of a cliff ridge. The elongate building is furnished with numerous towers, ornamental turrets, gables, balconies, pinnacles and sculptures. Following Romanesque style, most window openings are fashioned as bi- and triforia. Before the backdrop of the Tegelberg and the Pöllat Gorge in the south and the Alpine foothills with their lakes in the north, the ensemble of individual buildings provides varying picturesque views of the palace from all directions. It was designed as the romantic ideal of a knight’s castle. Unlike “real” castles, whose building stock is in most cases the result of centuries of building activity, Neuschwanstein was planned from the inception as an intentionally asymmetric building, and erected in consecutive stages. Typical attributes of a castle were included, but real fortifications – the most important feature of a medieval aristocratic estate – were dispensed with.
Palas酒店的套房包括王座室，路德維希套房，歌星大廳和石窟。內部特別是王座室拜占庭阿拉伯建築恢復到巴勒莫皇家西西里諾曼 – 斯瓦比亞時期的教堂和教堂，與德國霍亨斯陶芬之家有關。在整個過程中，該設計向德國傳奇人物Lohengrin（天鵝騎士）致敬。路德維希（Houdchwangau）在路德維希（Ludwig）大部分時間都在這裡度過了這些傳奇故事。這些主題在理查德瓦格納的歌劇中被採用。許多房間都有一個邊框，描繪了瓦格納所寫的各種歌劇，包括一個永久性地設有一個這樣的戲劇的劇院。許多內部房間仍未修飾，只有14間客房在路德維希去世前完成。國王在宮殿建造中的宮殿，宮殿的一個主要特徵仍未建成。根據國王家族的決定，計劃在上院的中間建造一個巨大的保持部分，這將成為整體的最高點和中心焦點。保留的基礎在上院中可見。
新天鵝堡（Neuschwanstein Castle）由幾個獨立的建築組成，這些建築物懸掛在懸崖山脊頂部150米的長度上。細長的建築配有眾多塔樓，裝飾塔樓，山牆，陽台，尖塔和雕塑。遵循羅馬風格，大多數窗戶開口都是雙層和三層。在南部的Tegelberg和Pöllat峽谷以及北部擁有湖泊的阿爾卑斯山麓之前，各個建築群從各個方向提供不同風景如畫的宮殿。它被設計為騎士城堡的浪漫理想。與“真正的”城堡不同，其建築存量在大多數情況下是幾個世紀的建築活動的結果，新天鵝堡從一開始就被規劃為一個故意不對稱的建築，並且連續建造。包括城堡的典型屬性，但真正的防禦工事 – 中世紀貴族莊園最重要的特徵 – 被免除。
A 1901 postcard of Berg Castle
The palace complex is entered through the symmetrical Gatehouse flanked by two stair towers. The eastward-pointing gate building is the only structure of the palace whose wall area is fashioned in high-contrast colours; the exterior walls are cased with red bricks, the court fronts with yellow limestone. The roof cornice is surrounded by pinnacles. The upper floor of the Gatehouse is surmounted by a crow-stepped gable and held Ludwig II’s first lodging at Neuschwanstein, from which he occasionally observed the building work before the hall was completed. The ground floors of the Gatehouse were intended to accommodate the stables.
The passage through the Gatehouse, crowned with the royal Bavarian coat of arms, leads directly into the courtyard. The courtyard has two levels, the lower one being defined to the east by the Gatehouse and to the north by the foundations of the so-called Rectangular Tower and by the gallery building. The southern end of the courtyard is open, imparting a view of the surrounding mountain scenery. At its western end, the courtyard is delimited by a bricked embankment, whose polygonally protracting bulge marks the choir of the originally projected chapel; this three-nave church, never built, was intended to form the base of a 90-metre (295-ft) keep, the planned centrepiece of the architectural ensemble. A flight of steps at the side gives access to the upper level.
宮殿建築群通過對稱的門樓進入，兩側樓梯塔樓兩側。朝東的門樓是宮殿的唯一結構，其牆面區域採用高對比度的顏色;外牆上裝滿了紅磚，庭院前面是黃色的石灰石。屋頂簷口周圍是尖峰。 Gatehouse的上層是一個烏鴉階梯山牆，並在Ludwig II的新天鵝堡住宿，他偶爾會在大廳建成之前觀察建築工程。 Gatehouse的底層是為了容納馬厩。
View from location of unrealized chapel along upper courtyard level: Bower (left), palace front, and Knights’ House (right)
Today, the foundation plan of the chapel-keep is marked out in the upper-courtyard pavement. The most striking structure of the upper court level is the so-called Rectangular Tower (45 metres or 148 feet). Like most of the court buildings, it mostly serves a decorative purpose as part of the ensemble. Its viewing platform provides a vast view over the Alpine foothills to the north. The northern end of the upper courtyard is defined by the so-called Knights’ House. The three-storey building is connected to the Rectangular Tower and the Gatehouse by means of a continuous gallery fashioned with a blind arcade. From the point of view of castle romanticism the Knights’ House was the abode of a stronghold’s menfolk; at Neuschwanstein, estate and service rooms were envisioned here. The Bower, which complements the Knights’ House as the “ladies’ house” but was never used as such, defines the south side of the courtyard. Both structures together form the motif of the Antwerp Castle featuring in the first act of Lohengrin. Embedded in the pavement is the floor plan of the planned palace chapel.
The western end of the courtyard is delimited by the Palas (hall). It constitutes the real main and residential building of the castle and contains the king’s stateroom and the servants’ rooms. The Palas is a colossal five-story structure in the shape of two huge cuboids that are connected in a flat angle and covered by two adjacent high gable roofs. The building’s shape follows the course of the ridge. In its angles there are two stair towers, the northern one surmounting the palace roof by several storeys with its height of 65 metres (213 ft). With their polymorphic roofs, both towers are reminiscent of the Château de Pierrefonds. The western Palas front supports a two-storey balcony with view on the Alpsee, while northwards a low chair tower and the conservatory protract from the main structure. The entire Palas is spangled with numerous decorative chimneys and ornamental turrets, the court front with colourful frescos. The court-side gable is crowned with a copper lion, the western (outward) gable with the likeness of a knight.
Had it been completed, the palace would have had more than 200 interior rooms, including premises for guests and servants, as well as for service and logistics. Ultimately, no more than about 15 rooms and halls were finished.In its lower stories the Palas accommodates administrative and servants’ rooms and the rooms of today’s palace administration. The king’s staterooms are situated in the upper stories: The anterior structure accommodates the lodgings in the third floor, above them the Hall of the Singers. The upper floors of the west-facing posterior structure are filled almost completely by the Throne Hall. The total floor space of all floors amounts to nearly 6,000 square metres (65,000 sq ft).
Neuschwanstein houses numerous significant interior rooms of German historicism. The palace was fitted with several of the latest technical innovations of the late 19th century.Among other things it had a battery-powered bell system for the servants and telephone lines. The kitchen equipment included a Rumford oven that turned the skewer with its heat and so automatically adjusted the turning speed. The hot air was used for a calorifère central heating system. Further novelties for the era were running warm water and toilets with automatic flushing.
The largest room of the palace by area is the Hall of the Singers, followed by the Throne Hall. The 27-by-10-metre (89 by 33 ft) Hall of the Singers is located in the eastern, court-side wing of the Palas, in the fourth floor above the king’s lodgings. It is designed as an amalgamation of two rooms of the Wartburg: The Hall of the Singers and the Ballroom. It was one of the king’s favorite projects for his palace. The rectangular room was decorated with themes from Lohengrin and Parzival. Its longer side is terminated by a gallery that is crowned by a tribune, modelled after the Wartburg. The eastern narrow side is terminated by a stage that is structured by arcades and known as the Sängerlaube. The Hall of the Singers was never designed for court festivities of the reclusive king. Rather, like the Throne Hall it served as a walkable monument in which the culture of knights and courtly love of the Middle Ages was represented. The first performance in this hall took place in 1933: A concert commemorating the 50th anniversary of Richard Wagner’s death.
The Throne Hall, 20 by 12 metres (66 by 39 ft), is situated in the west wing of the Palas. With its height of 13 metres (43 ft)it occupies the third and fourth floors. Julius Hofmann modelled it after the Allerheiligen-Hofkirche in the Munich Residenz. On three sides it is surrounded by colorful arcades, ending in an apse that was intended to hold Ludwig’s throne – which was never completed. The throne dais is surrounded by paintings of Jesus, the Twelve Apostles and six canonized kings. The mural paintings were created by Wilhelm Hauschild. The floor mosaic was completed after the king’s death. The chandelier is fashioned after a Byzantine crown. The Throne Hall makes a sacral impression. Following the king’s wish, it amalgamated the Grail Hall from Parzival with a symbol of the divine right of kings, an incorporation of unrestricted sovereign power, which Ludwig as the head of a constitutional monarchy no longer held. The union of the sacral and regal is emphasized by the portraits in the apse of six canonized kings: Saint Louis of France, Saint Stephen of Hungary, Saint Edward the Confessor of England, Saint Wenceslaus of Bohemia, Saint Olaf of Norway and Saint Henry, Holy Roman Emperor.
王座大廳位於Palas的西翼，20米×12米（66乘39英尺）。它的高度為13米（43英尺），佔據了第三層和第四層。朱利葉斯霍夫曼在慕尼黑住宅區的Allerheiligen-Hofkirche之後模仿它。三面環繞著色彩繽紛的拱廊，最後是一個旨在容納路德維希王座的後殿 – 從未完成過。王位殿堂周圍是耶穌，十二使徒和六個冊封的國王的畫作。壁畫是由Wilhelm Hauschild創作的。地板馬賽克在國王去世後完成。枝形吊燈以拜占庭皇冠為主。王座大廳給人一種神聖的印象。按照國王的願望，它將Parzival的聖杯大廳與國王神聖權利的象徵合併，將不受限制的主權權力納入其中，路德維希作為君主立憲制國家的領導人不再擁有。六個冊封國王的後殿畫像強調了骶骨與君王的結合：法國聖路易斯，匈牙利聖斯蒂芬，英國懺悔者聖愛德華，波希米亞聖文塞勞斯，挪威聖奧拉夫和聖亨利，神聖羅馬帝國皇帝。
Palace rooms (late 19th century Photochrom prints)
Apart from the large ceremonial rooms several smaller rooms were created for use by Ludwig II. The royal lodging is on the third floor of the palace in the east wing of the Palas. It consists of eight rooms with living space and several smaller rooms. In spite of the gaudy décor, the living space with its moderate room size and its sofas and suites makes a relatively modern impression on today’s visitors. Ludwig II did not attach importance to representative requirements of former times, in which the life of a monarch was mostly public. The interior decoration with mural paintings, tapestry, furniture and other handicraft generally refers to the king’s favorite themes: the grail legend, the works of Wolfram von Eschenbach, and their interpretation by Richard Wagner.
除了大型的禮儀室外，還有幾個較小的房間可供路德維希二世使用。 皇家住宿位於Palas東翼宮殿的三樓。 它包括八間帶起居空間的房間和幾間較小的房間。 儘管擁有華麗的裝飾，居住空間寬敞，房間面積適中，沙發和套房給今天的遊客留下了相對現代的印象。 路德維希二世並不重視以前的代表性要求，其中君主的生活大多是公開的。 室內裝飾有壁畫，掛毯，家具和其他手工藝品，一般是指國王最喜歡的主題：聖杯傳說，Wolfram von Eschenbach的作品，以及Richard Wagner的演繹。
Modern panorama from Neuschwanstein (1,008 m or 3,307 ft) showing (left to right): palace access road; Alpsee with locality of Hohenschwangau in front; nineteenth century Hohenschwangau Castle on a hill with Schwansee behind it on the right (west); locality of Alterschrofen with town of Füssen behind it; core of Schwangau in front of large Forggensee reservoir (1952); Bannwaldsee (north)
從新天鵝堡（1,008米或3,307英尺）的現代全景顯示（從左到右）：宮殿通道; Alpsee前面是Hohenschwangau的地方; 十九世紀的舊天鵝堡（Hohenschwangau Castle）在一座小山上與Schwansee在右邊（西邊）; Alterschrofen與Füssen鎮的地方; 施萬高的核心位於大型福爾根湖水庫（1952年）; Bannwaldsee（北部）
Neuschwanstein Castle as seen from Marienbrücke (Marie’s Bridge, or Pöllatbrücke). Marienbrücke is across the Pöllat directly behind and directly visible from Neuschwanstein Castle. The bridge was named by Ludwig II of Bavaria after his mother, Marie of Prussia.
從Marienbrücke（瑪麗的橋或Pöllatbrücke）看到的新天鵝堡。 Marienbrücke位於Pöllat對面，直接從新天鵝堡（Neuschwanstein Castle）可見。 這座橋由巴伐利亞的路德維希二世命名，他的母親是普魯士的瑪麗。
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