Buckingham Palace London 白金漢宮
Buckingham Palace (UK: /ˈbʌkɪŋəm ˈpælɪs/) is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom.Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and royal hospitality. It has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning.
Originally known as Buckingham House, the building at the core of today’s palace was a large townhouse built for the Duke of Buckingham in 1703 on a site that had been in private ownership for at least 150 years. It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a private residence for Queen Charlotte and became known as The Queen’s House. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, who constructed three wings around a central courtyard. Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837.
The last major structural additions were made in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including the East front, which contains the well-known balcony on which the royal family traditionally congregates to greet crowds. The palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb during World War II; the Queen’s Gallery was built on the site and opened to the public in 1962 to exhibit works of art from the Royal Collection.
The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream and gold colour scheme. Many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House. The palace has 775 rooms, and the garden is the largest private garden in London. The state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring.
he principal façade of Buckingham Palace, the East Front, was originally constructed by Edward Blore and completed in 1850. It was remodelled by Sir Aston Webb in 1913.
最初被稱為白金漢宮（Buckingham House）的宮殿建築是1703年為白金漢公爵（Buckingham）公爵建造的一座大型聯排別墅，至少有150年的歷史。它於1761年被喬治三世國王收購，作為夏洛特女王的私人住宅，並被稱為女王之家。在19世紀，它被擴大，主要由建築師約翰·納什（John Nash）和愛德華·布洛（Edward Blore）建造，圍繞中央庭院建造了三翼。白金漢宮於1837年成為英國君主倫敦的維多利亞女王加入的住所。
In the Middle Ages, the site of the future palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury (also called Eia). The marshy ground was watered by the river Tyburn, which still flows below the courtyard and south wing of the palace. Where the river was fordable (at Cow Ford), the village of Eye Cross grew. Ownership of the site changed hands many times; owners included Edward the Confessor and his queen consort Edith of Wessex in late Saxon times, and, after the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey.
In 1531, King Henry VIII acquired the Hospital of St James (later St James’s Palace)from Eton College, and in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey.These transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away almost 500 years earlier.
Various owners leased it from royal landlords and the freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century. By then, the old village of Eye Cross had long since fallen into decay, and the area was mostly wasteland Needing money, James I sold off part of the Crown freehold but retained part of the site on which he established a 4-acre (16,000 m2) mulberry garden for the production of silk. (This is at the northwest corner of today’s palace.)Clement Walker in Anarchia Anglicana (1649) refers to “new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. James’s”; this suggests it may have been a place of debauchery. Eventually, in the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley by the great heiress Mary Davies
各種各樣的業主把它從皇家地主租出來，永久業權是十七世紀瘋狂投機的主題。到那時，舊的Eye Cross村已經墮落了很久，這個地區大部分是荒地，需要錢，詹姆士我賣掉了一部分皇家永久產權，但是保留了一部分建立了4英畝（16,000英畝m2）桑園生產絲綢。 （這是在今天的宮殿的西北角。）在Anarchia Anglicana（1649）的克萊門特·沃克（Clement Walker）提到“在詹姆斯的桑樹花園新建立的聖堂和旋轉器”。這表明它可能是一個放蕩的地方。最終，在17世紀末期，永久產權由偉大的繼承人瑪麗·戴維斯（Mary Davies）繼承了財產大亨休·奧德利爵士
Buckingham House, c. 1710, was designed by William Winde for the 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby. This façade evolved into today’s Grand Entrance on the west (inner) side of the quadrangle, with the Green Drawing Room above.
白金漢宮c。 1710年由威廉Winde為白金漢和諾曼比公爵設計。 這個外牆演變成今天的格蘭德入口在四邊形的西側（內側），與上面的綠色繪圖室。
Piano nobile of Buckingham Palace. A: State Dining Room; B: Blue Drawing Room; C: Music Room; D: White Drawing Room; E: Royal Closet; F: Throne Room; G: Green Drawing Room; H: Cross Gallery; J: Ballroom; K: East Gallery; L: Yellow Drawing Room; M: Centre/Balcony Room; N: Chinese Luncheon Room; O: Principal Corridor; P: Private Apartments; Q: Service Areas; W: The Grand staircase. On the ground floor: R: Ambassador’s Entrance; T: Grand Entrance. The areas defined by shaded walls represent lower minor wings.
Note: This is an unscaled sketch plan for reference only. Proportions of some rooms may slightly differ in reality.
白金漢宮鋼琴nobile。 A：國家餐廳; B：藍色繪圖室 C：音樂室; D：白色繪圖室; E：皇家衣櫥; F：王座室; G：綠色繪圖室; H：十字畫廊 J：宴會廳 K：東畫廊; L：黃色客廳; M：中心/陽台房; N：中國午餐室; O：主要走廊; P：私人公寓; 問：服務區域 W：大樓梯。 R：大使的入口; T：大入口。 由陰影牆定義的區域代表較低的小翅膀。
The palace measures 108 metres (354 ft) by 120 metres (390 ft), is 24 metres (79 ft) high and contains over 77,000 m2 (830,000 sq ft) of floorspace.The floor area is smaller than the Royal Palace of Madrid, the Papal Palace and Quirinal Palace in Rome, the Louvre in Paris, the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, and the Forbidden City.There are 775 rooms, including 19 state rooms, 52 principal bedrooms, 188 staff bedrooms, 92 offices, and 78 bathrooms. The palace also has its own post office, cinema, swimming pool, doctor’s surgery, and jeweller’s workshop.
The principal rooms are contained on the piano nobile behind the west-facing garden façade at the rear of the palace. The centre of this ornate suite of state rooms is the Music Room, its large bow the dominant feature of the façade. Flanking the Music Room are the Blue and the White Drawing Rooms. At the centre of the suite, serving as a corridor to link the state rooms, is the Picture Gallery, which is top-lit and 55 yards (50 m) long.The Gallery is hung with numerous works including some by Rembrandt, van Dyck, Rubens and Vermeer;other rooms leading from the Picture Gallery are the Throne Room and the Green Drawing Room. The Green Drawing Room serves as a huge anteroom to the Throne Room, and is part of the ceremonial route to the throne from the Guard Room at the top of the Grand Staircase. The Guard Room contains white marble statues of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, in Roman costume, set in a tribune lined with tapestries. These very formal rooms are used only for ceremonial and official entertaining, but are open to the public every summer.
The Duke of Edinburgh seated in the Chinese Luncheon Room, one of a series of Chinese themed rooms on the piano nobile of the east wing. The fireplace was designed by Robert Jones and sculpted by Richard Westmacott. It was formerly in the Music Room at the Brighton Pavilion. The ornate clock, known as the Kylin Clock was made in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province, China, in the second half of the 18th century; it has a later movement by Benjamin Vulliamy circa 1820.
Directly underneath the State Apartments is a suite of slightly less grand rooms known as the semi-state apartments. Opening from the Marble Hall, these rooms are used for less formal entertaining, such as luncheon parties and private audiences. Some of the rooms are named and decorated for particular visitors, such as the 1844 Room, decorated in that year for the State visit of Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, and, on the other side of the Bow Room, the 1855 Room, in honour of the visit of Emperor Napoleon III of France. At the centre of this suite is the Bow Room, through which thousands of guests pass annually to the Queen’s Garden Parties in the Gardens. The Queen and Prince Philip use a smaller suite of rooms in the north wing.
Between 1847 and 1850, when Blore was building the new east wing, the Brighton Pavilion was once again plundered of its fittings. As a result, many of the rooms in the new wing have a distinctly oriental atmosphere. The red and blue Chinese Luncheon Room is made up from parts of the Brighton Banqueting and Music Rooms with a large oriental chimney piece sculpted by Richard Westmacott. The Yellow Drawing Room has wallpaper supplied in 1817 for the Brighton Saloon, and a chimney piece which is a European vision of how the Chinese chimney piece may appear. It has nodding mandarins in niches and fearsome winged dragons, designed by Robert Jones.
At the centre of this wing is the famous balcony with the Centre Room behind its glass doors. This is a Chinese-style saloon enhanced by Queen Mary, who, working with the designer Sir Charles Allom, created a more “binding” Chinese theme in the late 1920s, although the lacquer doors were brought from Brighton in 1873. Running the length of the piano nobile of the east wing is the great gallery, modestly known as the Principal Corridor, which runs the length of the eastern side of the quadrangle. It has mirrored doors, and mirrored cross walls reflecting porcelain pagodas and other oriental furniture from Brighton. The Chinese Luncheon Room and Yellow Drawing Room are situated at each end of this gallery, with the Centre Room obviously placed in the centre.
The original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which still survive, included widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle époque cream and gold colour scheme.
When paying a state visit to Britain, foreign heads of state are usually entertained by the Queen at Buckingham Palace. They are allocated a large suite of rooms known as the Belgian Suite, situated at the foot of the Minister’s Staircase, on the ground floor of the north-facing Garden Wing. The rooms of the suite are linked by narrow corridors, one of them is given extra heigh
愛丁堡公爵坐在中國午餐廳，這是東翼鋼琴上的一系列中國主題房間之一。壁爐由Robert Jones設計，由Richard Westmacott雕刻而成。它以前在布賴頓館的音樂室。麒麟鐘是在18世紀下半葉在中國江西景德鎮製造的，它有一個由約1820年本傑明Vulliamy後來的運動。
在1847年至1850年間，當布洛爾建造新的東翼時，布賴頓館再次被掠奪。因此，新翼的許多房間都有著明顯的東方氣息。紅色和藍色的中國午餐室由布萊頓宴會廳和音樂廳的部分部分組成，配有由Richard Westmacott雕刻的大東方煙囪。黃色繪畫室在1817年為布萊頓轎車提供了牆紙，而煙囪是歐洲人對中國煙囪可能如何出現的展望。羅伯特·瓊斯（Robert Jones）設計的壁龕裡還有可怕的飛龍。
在這個翼的中心是著名的陽台，玻璃門後面的中央室。這是由瑪麗女王強化的中國式沙龍，與設計師查爾斯·阿勒姆爵士（Sir Charles Allom）合作，在20世紀20年代後期創造了一個更具“約束力”的中國主題，儘管1873年從布萊頓帶來了這個漆藝門。東翼的鋼琴就是大廊，一般稱之為“長廊”，它沿著四邊形的東側延伸。它有鏡像的門，鏡面的牆壁，反射來自布賴頓的陶瓷寶塔和其他東方家具。中央午餐室和黃色繪畫室位於畫廊的兩端，中央廳顯然位於中央。
In 1901 the accession of Edward VII saw new life breathed into the palace. The new King and his wife Queen Alexandra had always been at the forefront of London high society, and their friends, known as “the Marlborough House Set”, were considered to be the most eminent and fashionable of the age. Buckingham Palace—the Ballroom, Grand Entrance, Marble Hall, Grand Staircase, vestibules and galleries redecorated in the Belle époque cream and gold colour scheme they retain today—once again became a setting for entertaining on a majestic scale but leaving some to feel King Edward’s heavy redecorations were at odds with Nash’s original work.
The last major building work took place during the reign of King George V when, in 1913, Sir Aston Webb redesigned Blore’s 1850 East Front to resemble in part Giacomo Leoni’s Lyme Park in Cheshire. This new, refaced principal façade (of Portland stone) was designed to be the backdrop to the Victoria Memorial, a large memorial statue of Queen Victoria, placed outside the main gates.George V, who had succeeded Edward VII in 1910, had a more serious personality than his father; greater emphasis was now placed on official entertaining and royal duties than on lavish parties. He arranged a series of command performances featuring jazz musicians such as the Original Dixieland Jazz Band (1919) – the first jazz performance for a head of state, Sidney Bechet, and Louis Armstrong (1932), which earned the palace a nomination in 2009 for a (Kind of) Blue Plaque by the Brecon Jazz Festival as one of the venues making the greatest contribution to jazz music in the United Kingdom. George V’s wife Queen Mary was a connoisseur of the arts, and took a keen interest in the Royal Collection of furniture and art, both restoring and adding to it. Queen Mary also had many new fixtures and fittings installed, such as the pair of marble Empire-style chimneypieces by Benjamin Vulliamy, dating from 1810, which the Queen had installed in the ground floor Bow Room, the huge low room at the centre of the garden façade. Queen Mary was also responsible for the decoration of the Blue Drawing Room. This room, 69 feet (21 metres) long, previously known as the South Drawing Room, has a ceiling designed specially by Nash, coffered with huge gilt console brackets.
The Victoria Memorial was created by sculptor Sir Thomas Brock in 1911 and erected in front of the main gates at the palace on a surround constructed by architect Sir Aston Webb.
During World War I, the palace, then the home of King George V and Queen Mary, escaped unscathed. Its more valuable contents were evacuated to Windsor but the royal family remained in situ. The King imposed rationing at the palace, much to the dismay of his guests and household. To the King’s later regret, David Lloyd George persuaded him to go further by ostentatiously locking the wine cellars and refraining from alcohol, to set a good example to the supposedly inebriated working class. The workers continued to imbibe and the King was left unhappy at his enforced abstinence.In 1938, the north-west pavilion, designed by Nash as a conservatory, was converted into a swimming pool.
During World War II, the palace was bombed nine times, the most serious and publicised of which resulted in the destruction of the palace chapel in 1940. Coverage of this event was played in cinemas all over the UK to show the common suffering of rich and poor. One bomb fell in the palace quadrangle while King George VI and Queen Elizabeth were in residence, and many windows were blown in and the chapel destroyed. War-time coverage of such incidents was severely restricted, however. The King and Queen were filmed inspecting their bombed home, the smiling Queen, as always, immaculately dressed in a hat and matching coat seemingly unbothered by the damage around her. It was at this time the Queen famously declared: “I’m glad we have been bombed. Now I can look the East End in the face”. The royal family were seen as sharing their subjects’ hardship, as The Sunday Graphic reported:
By the Editor: The King and Queen have endured the ordeal which has come to their subjects. For the second time a German bomber has tried to bring death and destruction to the home of Their Majesties … When this war is over the common danger which King George and Queen Elizabeth have shared with their people will be a cherished memory and an inspiration through the years.
On 15 September 1940, known as the Battle of Britain Day, an RAF pilot, Ray Holmes of No. 504 Squadron RAF rammed a German bomber he believed was going to bomb the Palace. Holmes had run out of ammunition and made the quick decision to ram it. Holmes bailed out. Both aircraft crashed. In fact the Dornier Do 17 bomber was empty. It had already been damaged, two of its crew had been killed and the remainder bailed out. Its pilot, Feldwebel Robert Zehbe, landed, only to die later of wounds suffered
1901年，愛德華七世的加入，吸引了新的生命。新國王和他的夫人亞歷山德拉女王一直在倫敦上流社會的前列，他們的朋友，被稱為“馬爾堡家集”，被認為是當代最傑出和最時尚的。白金漢宮 – 宴會廳，大門口，大理石大廳，豪華樓梯，門房和美術館，重新裝飾在今天保留的美好時代的奶油色和金色配色方案中，再次成為一個莊嚴的娛樂設置，但留下一些感覺愛德華國王與納什的原創工作不一致的是，大量的重新裝修。
最後一個主要的建築工程發生在喬治五世統治期間，1913年，阿斯頓·韋伯爵士重新設計了布洛爾的1850年的東方陣線，類似於賈科莫萊奧尼在柴郡的萊姆公園。這個新的主要外牆（波特蘭石頭）被設計成維多利亞女王紀念碑的背景，維多利亞女王紀念像是維多利亞女王的一個大型紀念雕像，放在大門外。喬治五世於1910年接替愛德華七世，他的性格比他的父親還要嚴肅。現在更加強調官方的娛樂和皇室職責，而不是奢侈的政黨。他安排了一系列爵士音樂家的指揮表演，如爵士樂隊原創Dixieland爵士樂隊（1919） – 第一屆國家元首爵士表演Sidney Bechet和路易斯·阿姆斯特朗（1932），於2009年獲得提名布雷肯爵士音樂節上的一種（藍色斑塊）作為對英國爵士音樂作出最大貢獻的場所之一。 喬治五世的妻子瑪麗皇后是一位藝術鑑賞家，對皇室收藏家具和藝術產生了濃厚的興趣，既恢復又增添了藝術。瑪麗女王還安裝了許多新的裝置和配件，例如Benjamin Vulliamy的一對大理石帝國風格的煙囪，可追溯到1810年，女王安裝在地下的Bow Room，中央的巨大的低矮房間花園外觀。瑪麗女王還負責藍色繪畫室的裝飾。這個房間長達69英尺（21米），以前稱為“南方客廳”，有一個由納什專門設計的天花板，鑲有巨大的鍍金控制台支架。
1940年9月15日，被稱為“英國之戰”的英國皇家空軍第504飛行員雷姆·霍姆斯率領的是一架德國轟炸機，他相信是要轟炸這座宮殿的。福爾摩斯已經用盡了彈藥，迅速作出了決定。福爾摩斯救了出來。兩架飛機墜毀。事實上，多尼爾17型轟炸機是空的。它已經被損壞，其中兩名船員已經遇害，其餘的人被救出。它的飛行員菲爾德韋貝爾·羅伯特·澤貝（Feldwebel Robert Zehbe）降落，只是在受傷後才死亡
DECONSTRUCTING HISTORY – THE BUCKINGHAM PALACE
From: The World We Don’t Know
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