Taj Mahal 泰姬瑪哈陵

The Taj Mahal (/ˌtɑːdʒ məˈhɑːl, ˌtɑːʒ-/; Hindi: ताज महल [taːdʒ ˈmɛːɦ(ə)l], meaning “Crown of the Palaces”) is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan (reigned from 1628 to 1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. It also houses the tomb of Shah Jahan, the builder. The tomb is the centerpiece of a 17-hectare (42-acre) complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall.Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (U.S. $827 million). The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri.The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage”. It is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India’s rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year and in 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative.泰姬陵(/ˌtɑːdʒməhɑːl,ˌtɑːʒ-/;印地語:ताजमहल[taːdʒmɛːɦ(ə)l],意為“宮殿之冠”)是一座象牙白色的大理石陵墓,位於亞穆納河南岸。印度阿格拉市。它於1632年由莫臥兒皇帝Shah Jahan(1628年至1658年在位)委任,以容納他最喜愛的妻子Mumtaz Mahal的墳墓。它還有建築師Shah Jahan的墓。墳墓是佔地17公頃(42英畝)的綜合建築的中心,包括一座清真寺和一間賓館,坐落在三面環形的正式花園中,旁邊是鋸齒狀的牆。陵墓的建造基本上在1643年完成,但在該項目的其他階段繼續工作了10年。泰姬陵綜合體據信於1653年全部完工,估計費用約為3200萬盧比,2015年約為528億盧比(8.27億美元)。該建築項目在法院建築師領導的建築師委員會的指導下僱用了大約20,000名工匠給皇帝烏斯塔德·艾哈邁德·拉胡里。泰姬陵於1983年被聯合國教科文組織列為世界遺產,因為它是“印度穆斯林藝術的寶石,也是世界遺產中備受推崇的傑作之一”。它被許多人視為莫臥兒建築的最佳典範,也是印度豐富歷史的象徵。泰姬陵每年吸引7-8百萬遊客,2007年,它被宣佈為世界新七大獎(2000-2007)倡議的贏家。

Location:Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 27°10′30″N 78°02′31″ECoordinates: 27°10′30″N 78°02′31″E
Area:17 hectares
Height:73 m (240 ft)
Built for Mumtaz Mahal
Architect:Ustad Ahmad Lahauri
Architectural style(s): Mughal architecture
Visitors :7–8 million (in 2014)
Governing body:Government of India

坐標:27°10’30“N 78°02’31”ECoordinates:27°10’30“N 78°02’31”E
專為Mumtaz Mahal而建
建築師:Ustad Ahmad Lahauri


Taj Mahal’s Taj, the transliteration of Taj, is the meaning of the crown, so it is not possible to call Ajumand Bezi Bicum, who was buried here, as Taj. Ajumand was the niece of the 20th wife of Sharjah’s father, Jahangir, who was married to Sharjah, who was then Prince Kulamu, and was given to Mutazhi Maha. The title of (Mumtaz Mahal). In the 19th year of entering the palace, she suffered from multiple pregnancies, and she had 8 males and 6 females. In 1630, when Ji Mann Barnu gave birth to Gauhara Begum in the 14th time, she was unfortunately infected with calving fever and died in the military camp of Nanzheng. Before the end of his life, he made three wishes to Sharjah, one of which was to build the most beautiful mausoleum in the world for her.

泰姬瑪哈陵的泰姬二字,是Taj的音譯,為皇冠之意,因此並不能稱呼葬於此的亞珠曼德·貝儂·比古姆為泰姬。亞珠曼德是沙迦罕父親賈漢吉爾的第20個妻子——茉荷茹妮莎的姪女,1612年與當時還是庫拉穆王子的沙迦罕結婚,被賜予慕塔芝瑪哈(Mumtaz Mahal)的封號。入宮19年,苦於多孕,生有8男6女,1630年,姬蔓·芭奴在第14次分娩Gauhara Begum時,不幸感染產褥熱,死於南征的軍營中。臨終前向沙迦罕提出了3個遺願,其中一項就是為她建造一座全世界最美麗的陵墓。

In 1632, the Taj Mahal began construction in the large garden at the turn of the Yamuna River in northern India. The primary task of this project is to plant trees. Since the growth of the trees is extremely slow, it will take at least 10 years. Let the tree grow. At that time, the highly prestigious architect Laholi used the Humayun Tomb of Delhi as a blueprint to mobilize 20,000 artisans and calligraphers from all over the world to integrate the local styles of Central Asia, Persia and India. It took 22 years. Completed this pure white and marble-built art building for an estimated total cost of 40 million rupees. The Taj Mahal building is made from more than 1,000 elephants from all over India and Asia. Turquoise comes from Tibet, lapis lazuli comes from Afghanistan, crystal and jade comes from the Ming Dynasty in China, and Jasper comes from Punjab in India. , sandalwood and ruby ​​from southern India, malachite and glaze from Myanmar, ivory and white jade from Thailand, sapphire from the Indian subcontinent next to Sri Lanka, agate and obsidian from Arabia, coral and fluorite from Persia, gold and silver from North Korea Emeralds and antlers come from Vietnam. A total of 28 gems and semi-precious stones are set in white marble. The Taj Mahal is 250 feet high and covers an area of ​​about 170,000 square meters. It is 580 meters long and 305 meters wide. It has a vestibule, main entrance, Mengzier Garden, mausoleum and mosque. To enter the main mausoleum, you need to take off your shoes or put on your shoe cover.

1632年,泰姬瑪哈陵在印度北部亞穆納河轉彎處的大花園內開始動工興建,這項工程的首要工作是種植樹木,由於樹的成長極為緩慢,因此至少要有10年的時間讓樹來成長。當時極負盛名的建築師拉何利以德里的胡馬雍陵為藍圖,動員2萬名來自世界各地的工匠和書法家,融合中亞、波斯和印度的本土風格,用了22年的時間完成了這座純白色及以大理石興建的藝術建築,總費用估計為4,000萬盧比。 泰姬瑪哈陵建築的材料是從印度各地和亞洲,以逾1千頭大象運送這些建築材料,綠松石來自西藏、青金石來自阿富汗、水晶和翡翠來自中國明朝,碧玉來自印度的旁遮普邦、檀香和紅寶石來自印度南部四邦、孔雀石和琉璃來自緬甸、象牙和白玉來自泰國、藍寶石來自印度次大陸旁邊的斯里蘭卡、瑪瑙和黑曜石來自阿拉伯、珊瑚和螢石來自波斯、黃金和白銀來自朝鮮、綠寶石和鹿角來自於越南。共有28種寶石和半寶石鑲嵌入白色大理石。泰姬瑪哈建物高250英尺,佔地約17萬平方公尺,南北長580米,寬305米,有前庭、正門、蒙兀兒花園、陵墓主體和清真寺。進入主陵需要脫掉鞋子或者穿上鞋套。

In recent years, with the development of industrialization in India, the Taj Mahal has been eroded by the acid rain generated by the Mathura refinery. The milky white marble wall has a yellow spot, the tomb has a small hole, and the silver door turns black. The Yamuna River near the Taj Mahal is heavily polluted and the chemical content in the river is high. Some experts believe that the base of the Taj Mahal will eventually collapse. Ecologists recommend planting mulberry trees around the Taj Mahal to absorb sulfur dioxide. The Indian government began to plant a large number of mulberry trees and set up the Taji Conservation Area.


FROM:The Story of the Taj Mahal for Kids: Famous World Landmarks for Children – FreeSchool

FROM:Taj Mahal, Agra, India in 4K Ultra HD
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