Washington DC 美國國會大廈

Washington DC|華盛頓哥倫比亞特區

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington,_D.C.

Architectural style American neoclassicism
Town or city Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C.
Country United States
Coordinates 38 ° 53’23.34719 “N 77 ° 00’32.63606” WCoordinates: 38 ° 53’23.34719 “N 77 ° 00’32.63606” W
Construction started September 18, 1793
Completed 1800
Client Washington administration
Technical details
Floor count 5
Floor area 16.5 acres (6.7 ha)  Design and construction
Architect William Thornton, designer
(see Architect of the Capitol)

坐標38°53’23.34719“N 77°00’32.63606”W坐標:38°53’23.34719“N 77°00’32.63606”W
建築面積16.5英畝(6.7公頃) 設計和建造
建築師William Thornton,設計師


The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Though not at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District’s street-numbering system and the District’s four quadrants.

The original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded, particularly with the addition of the massive dome, and expanded chambers for the bicameral legislature, the House of Representatives in the south wing and the Senate in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries.



Prior to establishing the nation’s capital in Washington, D.C., the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia (Independence Hall and Congress Hall), New York City (Federal Hall), and a number of other locations (York, Pennsylvania; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland; and Nassau Hall in Princeton, New Jersey). In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781.

After adopting the Articles of Confederation in York, Pennsylvania, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia. As a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783, and met in Annapolis, Maryland, and Trenton, New Jersey, before ending up in New York City.

The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790 when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. The decision to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years (until December 1800), until the nation’s capital in Washington, D.C., would be ready.

Pierre (Peter) Charles L’Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city.[6] L’Enfant chose Jenkin’s Hill as the site for the “Congress House”, with a “grand avenue” (now Pennsylvania Avenue, NW) connecting it with the President’s House, and a public space containing a broader “grand avenue” (now the National Mall) stretching westward to the Potomac River (see: L’Enfant Plan).

In reviewing L’Enfant’s plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the “Capitol” rather than “Congress House” The word “Capitol” comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome. The connection between the two is not, however, crystal clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L’Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President’s House; however, he was dismissed in February 1792 over disagreements with President George Washington and the commissioners, and there were no plans at that point for the Capitol.

美國國會及其前任在華盛頓建立首都之前,先後在費城(獨立廳和國會廳),紐約市(聯邦大廳)和其他一些地方(賓夕法尼亞州的約克;蘭開斯特,賓夕法尼亞州;馬里蘭州安納波利斯的馬里蘭州議會大廈;新澤西州普林斯頓的拿騷大廳)。 1774年9月,第一屆大陸會議匯集了費城殖民地的代表,接著是1775年5月至1781年3月舉行的第二屆大陸會議。

在賓夕法尼亞州約克州通過“邦聯條例”後,聯邦議會於1781年3月至1783年6月在費城成立並召開,當時憤怒的士兵聚集到獨立廳,要求在美國革命戰爭期間。國會要求賓夕法尼亞州州長約翰·狄金森(John Dickinson)召集民兵組織抗議國會議員的抗議。在被稱為1783年賓夕法尼亞州叛變的事件中,狄金森同情抗議者,拒絕將他們從費城趕走。因此,國會於1783年6月21日被迫逃往新澤西州普林斯頓,在馬里蘭州的安納波利斯和新澤西州的特倫頓會面,最後在紐約市結束。


皮埃爾(彼得)Charles L’Enfant被賦予了創建新首都城市規劃的任務。 L’Enfant選擇了Jenkin’s Hill作為“國會大廈”的所在地,有一個“大道”(現在是賓夕法尼亞大道)連接總統府和一個包含更廣闊的“大道”(現在是國家廣場)向西延伸到波托馬克河(參見:L’Enfant計劃)。

托馬斯·杰斐遜(Thomas Jefferson)在回顧“聯合國教科文組織的計劃”時堅持把立法建築稱為“國會大廈”,而不是“國會大廈”。“國會大廈”一詞來自拉丁語,並與卡比托利山丘上的木星擎天柱羅馬的七座山。然而,兩者之間的聯繫並不清楚。除了提出城市規劃外,L’Enfant還負責設計國會大廈和總統府;然而,他於1792年2月因與喬治·華盛頓總統和委員的意見分歧而被駁回,而且當時也沒有計劃為國會大廈。


From: U.S. Capitol

he Capitol building is marked by its central dome above a rotunda in the central section of the structure (which also includes, the older original smaller center flanked by the two original (designed 1793, occupied 1800) smaller two wings (inner north) and inner south) containing the two original smaller meeting chambers for the Senate and the House of Representatives (between 1800 and late 1850s) and then flanked by two further extended (newer) wings, one also for each chamber of the larger, more populous Congress: the new north wing is the Senate chamber and the new south wing is the House of Representatives chamber. Above these newer chambers are galleries where visitors can watch the Senate and House of Representatives. It is an example of the neoclassical architecture style.
Capitol Rotunda (2013 view)
Underground tunnels and internal subways connect the Capitol building with the Congressional office buildings in the Capitol Complex. All rooms in the Capitol are designated as either S (for Senate) or H (for House), depending on whether they are in the Senate or House wing of the Capitol.


The 1865 fresco painted by Constantino Brumidi on the interior of the Capitol’s dome is titled “The Apotheosis of Washington”. (2005 view)

Carlo Franzoni’s 1819 sculptural chariot clock, the Car of History depicting Clio, the Greek muse of history. National Statuary Hall. (2006 view)
The Capitol has a long history in art of the United States, beginning in 1856 with Italian/Greek American artist Constantino Brumidi and his murals in the hallways of the first floor of the Senate side of the Capitol. The murals, known as the Brumidi Corridors,[46] reflect great moments and people in United States history. Among the original works are those depicting Benjamin Franklin, John Fitch, Robert Fulton, and events such as the Cession of Louisiana. Also decorating the walls are animals, insects and natural flora indigenous to the United States. Brumidi’s design left many spaces open so that future events in United States history could be added. Among those added are the Spirit of St. Louis, the Moon landing, and the Space Shuttle Challenger shuttle crew.

Brumidi also worked within the Rotunda. He is responsible for the painting of “The Apotheosis of Washington” beneath the top of the dome, and also the famous “Frieze of American History”.[47] “The Apotheosis of Washington” was completed in 11 months and painted by Brumidi while suspended nearly 180 feet (55 m) in the air. It is said to be the first attempt by the United States to deify a founding father. Washington is depicted surrounded by 13 maidens in an inner ring with many Greek and Roman gods and goddesses below him in a second ring. The frieze is located around the inside of the base of the dome and is a chronological, pictorial history of the United States from the landing of Christopher Columbus to the Wright Brothers’s flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The frieze was started in 1878 and was not completed until 1953. The frieze was therefore painted by four different artists: Brumidi, Filippo Costaggini, Charles Ayer Whipple, and Allyn Cox. The final scenes depicted in the fresco had not yet occurred when Brumidi began his “Frieze of the United States History”.
Capitol Rotunda (2005 view)
Within the Rotunda there are eight large paintings about the development of the United States as a nation. On the east side are four paintings depicting major events in the


discovery of America. On the west are four paintings depicting the founding of the United States. The east side paintings include The Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, The Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir, The Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, and The Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn. The paintings on the west side are by John Trumbull: Declaration of Independence, Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, and General George Washington Resigning His Commission. Trumbull was a contemporary of the United States’ founding fathers and a participant in the American Revolutionary War; he painted a self-portrait into Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.
Declaration of Independence (1819), by John Trumbull
First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation of President Lincoln hangs over the west staircase in the Senate wing.




康斯坦丁諾·布魯米迪(Constantino Brumidi)在國會大廈內部的1865年的壁畫被稱為“華盛頓的典範”(The Apotheosis of Washington)。 (2005年查看)

卡洛·弗朗佐尼(Carlo Franzoni)1819年的雕塑戰車鐘,描繪克里歐(Clio)的希臘歷史之謎。國家雕像大廳。 (2006查看)
國會大廈在美國有著悠久的歷史,從1856年開始,意大利/希臘美國藝術家康斯坦丁諾·布魯米迪(Constantino Brumidi)和他在國會大廈參議院一樓走廊的壁畫。被稱為布魯米迪走廊(Brumidi Corridors)的壁畫[46]反映了美國歷史上偉大的時刻和人物。其中原創作品包括本傑明·富蘭克林,約翰·費奇,羅伯特·富爾頓和路易斯安那州割讓等事件。裝飾牆壁還有美國本土的動物,昆蟲和天然植物。布魯米迪的設計留下了許多空間,以便在美國歷史上的未來事件可以添加。其中增加了聖路易斯的精神,月球著陸和航天飛機挑戰者班車。

布魯米迪還在圓形大廳工作。他負責繪製“頂峰之下的華盛頓典範”,還有著名的“美國歷史的楣板”[47]。 “華盛頓的典範”在11個月內完成,由布魯米迪繪製,懸在空中近180英尺(55米)處。據說這是美國首次嘗試神化父親的嘗試。華盛頓被描繪的13個少女圍繞在一個內圈,許多希臘和羅馬的神和女神在他下面的第二個戒指。楣板位於穹頂底部的內部,是從克里斯托弗·哥倫布登陸北卡羅萊納州基特霍克的賴特兄弟號航班起飛的美國時間,圖片歷史。這個楣板始於1878年,直到1953年才完成。因此楣板由四位不同的藝術家所畫:Brumidi,Filippo Costaggini,Charles Ayer Whipple和Allyn Cox。當Brumidi開始他的“美國歷史的Frieze”時,壁畫描繪的最後的場面還沒有發生。

From: https://www.thoughtco.com/diverse-architecture-of-washington-dc-4065271

For almost two centuries, America’s governing bodies, the Senate and the House of Representatives, have gathered under the dome of the US Capitol.

When French engineer Pierre Charles L’Enfant planned the new city of Washington, he was expected to design the Capitol. But L’Enfant refused to submit plans and would not yield the authority of the Commissioners. L’Enfant was dismissed and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a public competition.

Most of the designers who entered the competition and submitted plans for the U.S. Capitol were inspired by Renaissance ideas. However, three entries were modeled after ancient classical buildings. Thomas Jefferson favored the classical plans, and suggested that the Capitol should resemble the Roman Pantheon with a circular domed rotunda.

Burned by British troops in 1814, the Capitol went through several major renovations. Like many buildings constructed during the founding of Washington DC, most of the labor was done by African Americans – some paid, and some slaves.

The most famous feature of the US Capitol, the cast-iron Neoclassical dome by Thomas Ustick Walter, was not added until the mid-1800s. The original dome by Charles Bulfinch was smaller and made of wood and copper.

Washington DC from WorldStrides on Vimeo.


當法國工程師皮埃爾·查爾斯·萊恩(Pierre Charles L’Enfant)計劃在華盛頓新市鎮時,他被設計為國會大廈。但是,L’Enfant拒絕提交計劃,不會授予專員的權力。 L’Enfant被解僱,國務卿托馬斯·杰斐遜提出公開競爭。

大多數進入比賽並提交美國國會大廈計劃的設計師都受到文藝復興時期的想法的啟發。然而,古代古典建築中,有三個作品被模仿。托馬斯·杰斐遜(Thomas Jefferson)贊成古典計劃,並建議國會大廈應該與羅馬萬神殿相似,圓形圓形圓形大廳。

國會大廈在1814年被英軍燒毀,經過幾次大修。像在華盛頓特區建成的許多建築一樣,大部分的勞動是由非裔美國人完成的 – 一些付錢,還有一些奴隸。

美國國會大廈最著名的特色是托馬斯·烏克·沃爾特(Thomas Ustick Walter)的鑄鐵新古典主義圓頂直到19世紀中期才被添加。 Charles Bulfinch的原始圓頂較小,由木材和銅製成。

建築師:William Thornton,Benjamin Henry Latrobe,Charles Bulfinch,Thomas Ustick Walter(Dome),Frederick Law Olmsted(景觀與硬景)


From: BookingHunterTV

Take a look inside our Washington, D.C. travel programs!
WorldStrides – Washington DC from WorldStrides on Vimeo.

From: https://blogs.loc.gov/picturethis/2016/05/under-construction-the-u-s-capitol/

Under Construction: The U.S. Capitol
May 5, 2016 by Kristi Finefield
U.S. Capitol with scaffolding partially removed. Photo by Lara Szypszak, March 26, 2016.
U.S. Capitol with scaffolding. Photo by Lara Szypszak, March 26, 2016.
After two years, the U.S. Capitol, or more specifically, its dome, is finally emerging from a scaffolding cocoon. The photo at right, taken in March 2016, captures the partially revealed dome of the Library of Congress’ neighbor across the street. The restoration work started in spring 2014 included new paint, and repairing and replacing damaged, rusted or missing pieces of the ornate ironwork which makes up the dome. During that time, the iconic structure has been covered up while dozens of workers returned it to its full glory.

Witnessing the methodical unveiling of a freshly painted and repaired dome inspired me to look through our collections for other views of the Capitol under construction or being renovated.

While maintenance is a continual affair for the Architect of the Capitol (AOC) staff at the sprawling Capitol building, sometimes more intense attention is required, as seen in the 1960 photo (below left) of a column being hoisted into position. Also, on a memorable day in 1993, the Statue of Freedom was airlifted from the dome to be restored at ground level instead of nearly 300 feet in the air atop her normal perch. (Photo, below right.)

兩年後,美國國會大廈,或更具體地說,它的圓頂,終於擺脫了腳手架繭。 2016年3月拍攝的照片拍攝了國會圖書館在街對面的半透明部分。 2014年春季開始的修復工作包括新油漆,修理和更換構成圓頂的華麗鐵器的損壞,生鏽或缺失的部分。在那段時間裡,這個標誌性的結構已經被覆蓋起來,而幾十個工人把它歸還了它的全部榮耀。


維多利亞州是國會大廈建築師(AOC)在國會大廈建築師持續不斷的工作,有時候需要更加強烈的關注,如1960年照片(左下圖)所示,正在被提升到位。此外,在1993年的一個難忘的日子,自由雕像從圓頂被空運,在地平面上而不是在正常鱸魚頂部的空中近300英尺。 (照片,右下方)

[Workmen hoisting a column during restoration work on the U.S. Capitol, Washington, D.C.] Photo by Warren K. Leffler, 1960 May 26. hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ds.04924
[在華盛頓特區的美國國會大廈恢復工作期間,工人們提出了一個專欄)。照片來自Warren K. Leffler,1960年5月26日。hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ds.04924
View of Statue of Freedom airlifted off of the dome – U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom. Photo by Jack E. Boucher, 1993. hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/hhh.dc1054/photos.361159p自由雕像自由空中俯瞰美國國會大廈,自由雕像。 攝影:Jack E. Boucher,1993. hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/hhh.dc1054/photos.361159p
Giving the dome a fresh coat of paint in the 1920s clearly required nerves of steel and no fear of heights!在20世紀20年代給圓頂一個新鮮的油漆清楚地需要鋼的神經,不怕高度!
Painting Capitol dome, 8/26/22. Photo by National Photo Company Collection, 1922 August 26. hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/npcc.23293繪畫國會大廈圓頂,8/26/22。 照片由National Photo Company Collection,1922年8月26日。hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/npcc.23293

The interior of any building as old as the Capitol needs attention as well. Here we have the 1857 tile floors being replaced in 1924 with marble.

任何像國會大廈一樣古老的建築物的內部也需要注意。 在這裡,我們有1857年的瓷磚地板在1924年被大理石所取代。

New finish for Capitol press gallery. Washington, D.C., Sept. 28. Newspapermen will hardly recognize the house press gallery when they resume “covering” the Hill the next session. Taking advantage of the silent typewriters and telegraphic instruments workmen are busy re-plastering and painting the gallery from top to bottom, 9/28/37. Photo by Harris & Ewing, 1937 September 28. hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/hec.23424

國會新聞畫廊的新完成。 華盛頓特區9月28日電新堡人在下一屆“恢復”希爾時,幾乎不能認出房屋新聞畫廊。 利用無聲打字機和電報儀器,工作人員正忙著從9/28/37的上下重新抹灰畫畫。 照片由哈里斯與尤因,1937年9月28日。hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/hec.23424

The dome that has recently received so much attention is actually the second dome to grace the U.S. Capitol. When new wings were added to the building in the 1850s and 1860s, the towering cast iron dome replaced the original, smaller copper and wood dome. The photo at right, taken during the U.S. Civil War, offers a view of one of the new wings and the nearly complete dome rising in the background.
Learn More:

Explore early images dating from the 1850s to the 1870s related to the U.S. Capitol, including views of the dome under construction.
See photos of early 20th century repairs to the U.S. Capitol in the Washington, D.C.-based photographer Theodor Horydczak Collection.
Explore the history of the U.S. Capitol in a Library of Congress online exhibition: Temple of Liberty: Building a Capitol for the New Nation.
Learn more about the current restoration work by the Architect of the Capitol staff, which is now focused on the interior of the dome.
Read two fascinating posts from Inside Adams, the blog of the Library of Congress Science, Technology & Business Division: The Capitol Dome: Janes, Fowler, & Kirtland Co. and Expanding the Capitol’s Dome.

最近受到這麼多關注的圓頂實際上是美國國會大廈的第二個圓頂。 19世紀50年代和18世紀60年代,當新翼被添加到建築物時,高聳的鑄鐵圓頂代替了原來的較小的銅和木穹頂。在美國內戰期間拍攝的右側的照片提供了一個新的翅膀和幾乎完整的圓頂在後台崛起的視圖。

參見華盛頓特區攝影師Theodor Horydczak系列的美國國會大廈修復20世紀初的照片。
閱讀Inside Adams的兩個引人入勝的帖子,國會圖書館科技部商業博客博客:國會大廈圓頂:Janes,Fowler,&Kirtland公司和擴大國會大廈的圓頂。

Construction of Senate wing of the U.S. Capitol, west front], Photo, between 1860 and 1865. hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b39203美國國會大廈參議院建築,西面],照片,1860年至1865年間。hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b39203


From: U.S. Capitol


From: U.S. Capitol


From: U.S. Capitol


From: U.S. Capitol


From: U.S. Capitol

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