Philadelphia City Hall 費城市政廳
Philadelphia City Hall is the seat of government for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The building was constructed from 1871 to 1901 within Penn Square, in the middle of Center City. John McArthur Jr. and Thomas Ustick Walter designed the building in the Second Empire style. City Hall is a masonry building whose weight is borne by granite and brick walls up to 22 ft (6.7 m) thick. The principal exterior materials are limestone, granite, and marble. The final construction cost was $24 million.
At 548 ft (167 m), including the statue of city founder William Penn atop its tower, City Hall was the tallest habitable building in the world from 1894 to 1908. It remained the tallest in Pennsylvania until it was surpassed in 1932 by the Gulf Tower in Pittsburgh. It was the tallest in Philadelphia until 1986 when the construction of One Liberty Place surpassed it, ending the informal gentlemen’s agreement that had limited the height of buildings in the city to no higher than the Penn statue.
In 1976, City Hall was designated a National Historic Landmark.
費城市政廳是賓夕法尼亞州費城市政府所在地。該建築建於1871年至1901年，位於市中心的賓夕法尼亞廣場內。 John McArthur Jr.和Thomas Ustick Walter設計了第二帝國風格的建築。市政廳是一座磚石建築，其重量由厚達22英尺（6.7米）的花崗岩和磚牆承擔。主要的外部材料是石灰石，花崗岩和大理石。最終的建設成本為2400萬美元。
市政廳位於其塔樓頂部548英尺（167米）處，包括城市創始人威廉·佩恩的雕像，是1894年至1908年間世界上最高的可居住建築。它一直是賓夕法尼亞州最高的建築物，直到1932年被海灣超越在匹茲堡的塔。它是費城最高的，直到1986年，One Liberty Place的建築超過了它，結束了非正式紳士的協議，限制了城市建築的高度不高於賓夕法尼亞雕像。
Philadelphia City Hall :1899
Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Coordinates: 39°57′8.62″N 75°9′48.95″WCoordinates: 39°57′8.62″N 75°9′48.95″W
Area: 630,000 ft² (58,222 m²) Built 1871–1901
Architect: John McArthur, Jr.
Thomas U. Walter
Architectural style: Second Empire, other
坐標：39°57’8.62“N 75°9’48.95”WCoordinates：39°57’8.62“N 75°9’48.95”W
History and description
The building was designed by Scottish-born architect John McArthur Jr. and Thomas Ustick Walter in the Second Empire style, and was constructed from 1871 to 1901 at a cost of $24 million. City Hall’s tower was completed by 1894, although the interior wasn’t finished until 1901. Designed to be the world’s tallest building, it was surpassed during construction by the Washington Monument and the Eiffel Tower. Upon completion of its tower in 1894, it became the world’s tallest habitable building. It was also the first secular building to have this distinction, as all previous world’s tallest buildings were religious structures, including European cathedrals and—for the previous 3,800 years—the Great Pyramid of Giza.
With almost 700 rooms, City Hall is the world’s largest municipal building. The building houses three branches of government: the city’s executive branch (the Mayor’s Office), its legislature (the Philadelphia City Council), and a substantial portion of the judicial activity in the city (the Civil Division and Orphan’s Court of the Pennsylvania Court of Common Pleas for the First Judicial District are housed there, as well as chambers for some criminal judges and some judges of the Philadelphia Municipal Court).
The tower features clocks 26 ft (7.9 m) in diameter on all four sides of the metal portion of the tower (larger than the Clock Tower, Palace of Westminster). This clock was designed by Warren Johnson and built in 1898.
City Hall’s observation deck is located directly below the base of the statue, about 500 ft (150 m) above street level. Once enclosed with chain-link fencing, the observation deck is now enclosed by glass. It is reached in a 6-person elevator whose glass panels allow visitors to see the interior of the iron superstructure that caps the tower and supports the statuary and clocks. Stairs within the tower are only used for emergency exit. The ornamentation of the tower has been simplified; the huge garlands that festooned the top panels of the tower were removed.
In the 1950s, the city council investigated tearing down City Hall for a new building elsewhere. They found that the demolition would have bankrupted the city due to the building’s masonry construction.
Beginning in 1992, Philadelphia City Hall underwent a comprehensive exterior restoration, planned and supervised by the Historical Preservation Studio of Vitetta Architects & Engineers, headed by renowned historical preservation architect Hyman Myers. The majority of the restoration was completed by 2007, although some work has continued, including the installation of four new ornamental courtyard gates, based on an original architectural sketch, in December 2015.
City Hall became a National Historic Landmark in 1976. In 2006, it was also named a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
該建築由蘇格蘭出生的建築師約翰麥克阿瑟小和托馬斯Ustick沃爾特設計的第二帝國風格，並建於1871年至1901年，耗資2400萬美元。市政廳的塔樓於1894年完工，儘管內部直到1901年才完工。設計成為世界上最高的建築物，在華盛頓紀念碑和艾菲爾鐵塔的建造過程中被超越。 1894年完工後，它成為世界上最高的可居住建築。這也是世界上第一座有此特色的建築，因為以前所有世界上最高的建築物都是宗教建築，包括歐洲的大教堂和以前的3，800年 – 吉薩大金字塔。
William Penn statue 威廉·佩恩雕像
The building is topped by a 37 ft (11 m) bronze statue weighing 53,348 lb (24,198 kg) of city founder William Penn, one of 250 sculptures created by Alexander Milne Calder that adorn the building inside and out. The statue was cast at the Tacony Iron Works of Northeast Philadelphia and hoisted to the top of the tower in fourteen sections in 1894.The statue is the tallest atop any building in the world. Despite its lofty perch, the city has mandated that the statue be cleaned about every ten years to remove corrosion and reduce deterioration due to weathering, with the latest cleaning done in May 2017. Penn’s statue is hollow, and a narrow access tunnel through it leads to a 22-inch-diameter (56 cm) hatch atop the hat.
Calder wished the statue to face south so that its face would be lit by the sun most of the day, the better to reveal the details of his work. The statue actually faces northeast, towards Penn Treaty Park in the Fishtown section of the city, which commemorates the site where Penn signed a treaty with the local Native American tribe. Pennsbury Manor, Penn’s country home in Bucks County, is also located to the northeast.
By the terms of a gentlemen’s agreement that forbade any structure from rising above the hat on the Penn statue, Philadelphia City Hall remained the tallest building in the city until it was surpassed by One Liberty Place in 1986. The abrogation of this agreement supposedly brought a curse onto local professional sports teams. Twice during the 1990s, the statue was partially clothed in a major league sports team’s uniform when they were in contention for a championship: a Phillies cap in 1993 and a Flyers jersey in 1997—both teams lost. The curse ended 22 years later when the Phillies won the 2008 World Series, a year and four months after a Penn statuette had been affixed to the final beam of the Comcast Center during its topping out ceremony in June 2007.Another Penn statuette was placed on the topmost beam of the Comcast Technology Center in November 2017, and the Eagles won the Super Bowl a few months later.
按照紳士協議的條款，禁止任何結構從賓夕法尼亞州的雕像上升到帽頂以上，費城市政廳仍然是該市最高的建築物，直到1986年被一個自由廣場超越。這項協議的廢止據稱帶來了詛咒當地的職業運動隊。在20世紀90年代的兩次，這個雕像在參加冠軍爭奪一項大聯盟運動隊的製服時部分穿著：1993年的菲利斯帽和1997年的飛人隊球衣 – 兩隊都失敗了。 22年後，當費城人隊贏得2008年世界大賽時，這個詛咒終於結束了，2007年6月，佩恩雕像被加入到康卡斯特中心的最後一桿後一年零四個月。另一個佩恩雕像被放置在2017年11月康卡斯特技術中心的最頂梁，幾個月後鷹隊贏得超級碗。
Octavius Catto memorial (2018) / Octavius Catto紀念館（2018年）
Statue of President McKinley (2017) / 麥金利總統的雕像（2017）
City Hall is a masonry structure with load-bearing walls up to 22 feet (6.7 m) thick. The principal exterior materials are limestone, granite, and marble. The only structural and exterior metallic parts of the building are the upper portion of the clock tower and the bronze statuary.
City Hall was the tallest habitable building in the world from 1894 to 1908, measuring 548 ft (167 m) to the top of the statue of William Penn. It is the 16th-tallest building in Pennsylvania, and was the tallest building in the state from 1894 until 1932 when it was surpassed by the Gulf Tower in Pittsburgh. It was the tallest building in Philadelphia from 1894 until 1986 when One Liberty Place ended the gentlemen’s agreement which had limited building heights to no higher than William Penn’s hat.
The tallest statue atop any building in the world is the 37 ft (11 m) tall statue of William Penn, sculpted by Alexander Milne Calder. Approximately 88 million bricks and several thousand tons of stone were used in construction. There are four bronze eagles, each weighing three tons with 12 ft (3.7 m) wingspans, perched above the tower’s four clocks.The building was voted #21 on the American Institute of Architects’ list of Americans’ 150 favorite U.S. structures in 2007.
City Hall is situated on land that was reserved as a public square upon the city’s founding in 1682. Originally known as Centre Square—later renamed Penn Square—it was used for public gatherings until the construction of City Hall began in 1871. Centre Square was one of the five original squares of Philadelphia laid out on the city grid by William Penn. The square had been located at the geographic center of Penn’s city plan, but the Act of Consolidation in 1854 created the much larger and coterminous city and county of Philadelphia.Though no longer at the exact center of the city, the square remains situated in the center of the historic area between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers; an area which is now called Center City.
Penn had intended that Centre Square be the central focus point where the major public buildings would be located, including those for government, religion, and education, as well as the central marketplace. However, the Delaware riverfront would remain the de facto economic and social heart of the city for more than a century.
In 2014, the west side of the original square along 15th Street was partially returned to green space after a renovation, and is now called Dilworth Park.
市政廳位於1682年成立時作為公共廣場保留的土地上。原名中央廣場 – 後來更名為賓夕法尼亞廣場 – 它被用於公共集會，直到1871年市政廳開始建設。中心廣場是費城的五個原始廣場之一由威廉·佩恩在城市網格上佈置。該廣場位於賓州城市規劃的地理中心，但1854年的鞏固行動創造了費城的更大，同樣的城市和縣。雖然不再位於城市的中心，但廣場仍然位於特拉華州和斯庫爾基爾河之間歷史區的中心;現在稱為中心城市的區域。
The Philadelphia City Hall at the new Legoland Discovery Center Philadelphia 費城新樂高樂園探索中心的費城市政廳
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