Holy Trinity Column Olomouc 奧洛穆茨聖三柱
The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc, in the Czech Republic is a Baroque monument (Trinity column) that was built between 1716 to 1754. The main purpose was to celebrate the Catholic Church and faith, partly caused by feeling of gratitude for ending a plague, which struck Moravia (now in the Czech Republic) between 1713 and 1715.:18 The column was also understood to be an expression of local patriotism, since all artists and master craftsmen working on this monument were Olomouc citizens, and almost all depicted saints were connected with the city of Olomouc in some way.:26
It is the biggest Baroque sculptural group in the Czech Republic. In 2000 it was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as “one of the most exceptional examples of the apogee of central European Baroque artistic expression”.
位於捷克共和國奧洛穆茨的聖三一柱是建於1716年至1754年之間的巴洛克式紀念碑（三位一體柱）。主要目的是慶祝天主教會和信仰，部分原因是感謝結束瘟疫， 1713年至1715年期間襲擊了摩拉維亞（現在的捷克共和國）。這個專欄也被認為是當地愛國主義的一種表達，因為在這座紀念碑上工作的所有藝術家和工匠都是奧洛穆茨公民，幾乎所有被描繪的聖徒都是 以某種方式與奧洛穆茨市相連。：26
Coordinates 49 ° 35’38.19 “N 17 ° 15’1.53” ECoordinates: 49 ° 35’38.19 “N 17 ° 15’1.53” E
Location Olomouc, Czech Republic
Beginning date 1716
Completion date 1754
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Criteria Cultural: (i), (iv) Edit this on Wikidata
Inscription 2000 (24th Session)
坐標49°35’38.19“N 17°15’1.53”ECOordinates：49°35’38.19“N 17°15’1.53”E
According to the ICOMOS evaluation of this patrimony, “the erection of Marian (plague) columns on town squares is an exclusively Baroque, post-Tridentine, phenomenon. Its iconographic basis lies in the Book of Revelation. The basic model is thought to have been the column in the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, from 1614.
This monument for Olomouc was the culmination of work of several artists and master craftsmen, but it did not bring much fortune to them. The first to die during the work was Wenzel Render, a monumental mason and privileged imperial architect. He came first with the idea to build the column, enforced his will upon the city council, designed it, built the first stage and helped to finance it. His followers Franz Thoneck, Johann Wenzel Rokický and Augustin Scholtz also did not live long enough to see the column finished; it was completed by Johann Ignaz Rokický. The sculptural decoration was started by Phillip Sattler. After his death Andreas Zahner continued and made 18 sculptures and 9 reliefs in 7 years before he died as well. Goldsmith Simon Forstner, who made gilded copper sculptures of the Holy Trinity and of the Assumption of the Virgin, was somewhat luckier and managed to finish his brilliant work. However he lost his health when working on the sculptures and using toxic mercury compounds during the gilding process.
After the Holy Trinity Column was finished in 1754, it became a source of great pride for Olomouc, since all people participating in its creation were citizens of the town. The column was consecrated in a great celebration attended by Empress Maria Theresa and her husband Francis I.
Only four years later, when Olomouc was besieged by a Prussian army and the Holy Trinity Column was hit by shots from Prussian cannons several times, Olomouc citizens went in a procession to beg the Prussian general not to shoot at the monument. General James Keith complied with their wishes. The column was repaired soon after the war and a replica of a stone shot was half-buried in its stem on the place where it was hit to remind people of this event.
奧洛穆茨的這座紀念碑是幾位藝術家和工匠大師的作品的高潮，但它並沒有給他們帶來太大的財富。第一個在工作期間死去的是Wenzel Render，一位具有紀念意義的石匠和特權皇家建築師。他首先提出了建立專欄的想法，將他的意志強加於市議會，設計它，建立第一階段並幫助資助它。他的追隨者Franz Thoneck，JohannWenzelRokický和Augustin Scholtz也沒有足夠長的時間看完專欄;它由JohannIgnazRokický完成。雕塑裝飾由Phillip Sattler創作。在他去世後，安德烈亞斯·扎納在他去世前的7年裡繼續並製作了18件雕塑和9件浮雕。戈德史密斯西蒙福斯特納，製作了聖三一和聖母升天的鍍金銅雕塑，有點幸運，並設法完成他的出色工作。然而，他在雕刻工作和在鍍金過程中使用有毒的汞化合物時失去了健康。
The column is dominated by gilded copper sculptures of the Holy Trinity accompanied by the Archangel Gabriel on the top and the Assumption of the Virgin beneath it.
The base of the column, in three levels, is surrounded by 18 more stone sculptures of saints and 14 reliefs in elaborate cartouches. At the uppermost stage are saints connected with Jesus’ earth life – his mother’s parents St. Anne and St. Joachim, his foster-father St. Joseph, and St. John the Baptist, who was preparing his coming – who are accompanied by St. Lawrence and St. Jerome, saints to whom the chapel in the Olomouc town hall was dedicated. Three reliefs represent the Three theological virtues Faith, Hope, and Love.
Below them, the second stage is dedicated to Moravian saints St. Cyril and St. Methodius (Czech Metoděj), who came to Great Moravia to spread Christianity in 863 (St. Methodius became Moravian Archbishop), St. Blaise, in whose name one of the main Olomouc churches is consecrated, and patrons of neighbouring Bohemia St. Adalbert of Prague (Czech Vojtěch) and St. John of Nepomuk (Czech Jan Nepomucký), whose following was very strong there as well.
In the lowest stage one can see the figures of an Austrian patron St. Maurice and a Bohemian patron St. Wenceslas (Czech Václav), in whose names two important Olomouc churches were consecrated, another Austrian patron St. Florian, who was also viewed as a protector against various disasters, especially fire, St. John of Capistrano (Czech Jan Kapistránský), who used to preach in Olomouc, St. Anthony of Padua, a member of the Franciscan Order, which owned an important monastery in Olomouc, and St. Aloysius Gonzaga, a patron of students. His sculpture showed that Olomouc was very proud of its university.
Reliefs of all twelve apostles are placed among these sculptures.
該柱的底部分為三層，周圍是18個石雕的聖徒雕塑和14個浮雕精美的裝飾品。在最上面的階段是與耶穌的地球生活有關的聖徒 – 他的母親的父母聖安妮和聖約阿希姆，他的養父聖約瑟夫和施洗約翰，他正在準備他的到來 – 他們是由聖徒陪伴的勞倫斯和圣杰羅姆，奧洛穆茨市政廳的教堂專門為他們服務的聖徒。三種浮雕代表了三種神學美德，信仰，希望和愛。
HOLY TRINITY COLUMN IN OLOMOUC
From: Josef Štěpánek
HOLY TRIINITY COLUMN
From: Mat Adams
HOLY TRINITY COLUMN IN OLOMOUC (UNESCO/NHK)
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